This experiment was designed to investigate the reminiscence in recall and in printing performance simultaneously, and to test both the inhibition theory and the consolidation theory. It was expected from the previous works that reminiscence in recall would occur with about 2min. rest, while reminiscence in printing performance would increase rapidly till 5min. rest. According to the inhibition theory, the amount of reminiscence will negatively correlate with the amount of improvement of perfomance during practice, while according to the consolidation theory, inserted task during the rest period will have interference effect on the following performance. 8 gruops of Ss practiced the copying in print hand of 10 Chinese-like nonsense characters in 20sec. for 15 trials without rest (MP), and one group paracticed the same task with 20 sec. intertrial intervals (DP). Then, following 15 sec., 2, 5, or 8min. rest period, 8 MP groups received either a free recall test (2min.) or 5 retrials under MP condition. The DP group took 2min. rest received the free recall test. All groups except 2 groups with 8min. rest, received either 5 retrials (after recall test) or recall test (after retrials) after 8min. from the end of 15th practice trial. 4 groups which were given retrials as the second task and the 8min. retrial group were given the 2 nd recall test after 1min. from the end of 20th trial. (Table 1) The number of printed letters on each trial and the number of recalled letters within 2min, were recorded. As for the printing performance during 15 trials, 8 MP groups performed equally well and their performance was inferior to the DP group (Fig. 1). As to the 1st recall, 2min, rest group performed the best in terms of the numbers of correct recall and errors (Fig. 2). On the other hand, reminiscence in printing performance, indicated by the difference of performance between 15th trial and 16th trial, was the same regardless of the length of rest (Table 2). Reminiscence of the DP group was smaller than MP groups. And there was no difference of performance during post-rest retrials. Amount of reminiscence of printing performance correlated negatively with the amount of improvement of performance during practice in all groups except 2min. rest group (Fig. 5). Inserted task during the rest-recall or retrials-had effect on errors, i.e., although recall test had no effect on printing performance, recall test after 15sec. rest and retrials after 2min. rest interfered with the decrease of errors during retrials; In fact, 2 groups under these conditions showed more, errors than the other groups (Fig. 3, 4). From our results, it appears that the inhibition theory is necessary to explain the reminiscence in printing performance and that the consolidation theory is useful for explaining the interference effect of the inserted task on recall.
The present study was designed to examine the effect of amount of initial training on backward serial learning by employing the anticipation and the recall method and to investigate the mechanisms of serial learning. Exp. I was done in order to test the explanation based on the position hypothesis by Young, Patterson & Benson (1963). Ss were required to learn 2 serial lists of 10 items each, by the anticipation method. Three groups, Rev (1), Rev (OvL), and C, were given different amounts of list-1 learning (1 perfect recitation, overlearning, and control). After the acquisition of list-1, Ss were presented list-2 which was the backward serial list of list-1 (Rev). In Exp. II, the procedure was the same as that in Exp. I except that Ss were asked to recall 2items of serial list (2items serial recall) after list-2 learning. Additionally, latency was measured on list-1 learning and recall. The results of Exp. I and II indicated that transfer effect was not observed in terms of the learning of the whole list, but positive transfer was obtained in the middle of SPC with Rev (1). A bowed SPC was found in Rev (OvL). In the serial recall of 2items, Rev (OvL) was inferior to Rev (1). In Exp. III, the recall method was used. Ss were divided into three groups (Rev, Ran, and C) and each was given two levels of amount of initial training (1 and OvL). Ran condition was established by arranging the items of list-1 at random in the list-2. Positive transfer was found in Rev, Further, Rev (OvL) was superior to Rev (1) in the earlier stage of learning. These discrepancies in results were discussed in terms of the difference in the nature of task between the anticipation and the recall method and the time given for recall. The present study failed to support the sequential, the position or other hypotheses based on the traditional associative theory, but suggested the concept of sequential organization.
The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of experimentally induced muscular tension (IMT), original spontaneous muscular tension (MT) which each subject had usually in laboratory, upon verbal learning. The main problem points were as follows. (1) Does IMT affect learning or recall? (2) Does High-MT facilitate recall more than Low-MT? (3) Is there an interaction between the effects of IMT and MT? (4) Does IMT-during-learning (T-T, T-N groups) affect recall even on the following trials? Experiment I: Subjects (Ss) were 48 undergraduate students. A Hull-type memory drum, presenting each word for a 3 sec. duration, was used. A list consisted of 12 nonsense syllables. A weight hand dynamometer, evoking IMT, was used. Ss pulled the dynamometer at a value of 1/5 maximum tension determined for each S. The Ss' task was to learn 12 nonsense syllables. Time intervals between list presentation and recall were 0, 100, 200 and 360 sec. Ss were required to recall words freely as many as possible. Group T-T learned and recalled under IMT. Group T-N learned under IMT and recalled under no IMT. Group N-T learned under no IMT and recalled under IMT. Group N-N learned and recalled under no IMT. As a measure of MT, eye blink rates were measured during 5 learning trials. With this measure, each of four IMT group was further divided into two subgroups: high muscular tension group (H-MT) and low muscular tension group (L-MT). After 4 free recall trials, Ss were required to relearn to a learning criterion. Experiment II: Ss were 40 undergraduate students and were divided into four IMT groups (T-T, T-N, N-T, N-N). Ss were shown only once a list consisting of 7 paired Japanese verbs. The temporal intervals between stimuli presentation and recall were 0, 60, 120 and 180sec. Eyeblink rates were not measured. Otherwise the procedure was nearly equal to that of Exp. I. The main results were as follows. (1) In both Exp. I and Exp. II, recall was facilitated in the groups under IMT (T-T, N-T), as compared with the results of the groups under no IMT (T-N, N-N) (Figs. 2 & 6). Thus IMT failed to have an effect upon habit formation. (2) Recall in group H-MT was better than that of group L-MT (Fig. 3). Thus recall was facilitated by originally higher muscular tension. (3) The after-effect of IMT on the following trials was studied with the performance of group T-N. In Exp. I, the after-effect of IMT was not found but in Exp. II it was shown up to 120 sec. after acquisition (Fig. 6). (4) The interaction between the effects of IMT and MT was not found (Fig. 1). However further studies are necessary to investigate into individual innate muscular tension and muscular tension generalized from IMT and other muscular movement.