Almost every culture has its social norms of conduct, called courtesy. The concept of “Reigi” (courtesy) in Japan was originated from Confucianism and it has been recognized of great importance in all human relationships, especially until the World War II. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze the concept itself for the younger and older generations. According to our preliminary survey, the concept has been often referred to that in the relation of persons such as parent-child, teacher-pupil, and senior-junior, and it is accompanied by the moral sentiment of respect, gratitude, submission, and harmony. Usually the adult regards it more important than the younger, and the female regards it more significant than the male. (1) Semantic Differential method applied to this concept yielded two main factors for both older and younger generations. The one factor is “happiness”, and the other is “social constraint”. (2) From the classical books of ethics in Japan, tentative components of this concept were collected. In each relation of 11 principal human cases such as parent-child, the components were assessed by the constant sum method. The most important components rated are reliance, sincerity, and reverence, while etiquettes and wording in speech are least rated as a factor of courtesy. Factor analysis of the score matrix yielded two main factors. The one is generosity and mercy, and the other is modesty and non-pretension. Besides, one more factor of reverence-submission was extracted for the younger samples.
This study was performed to clarify the structure of children's response tendencies which appeared in conflict situations with their parents, and to examine the effect of age, social strata, sex and conflict partner (mother or father) on them. ‘Some parts of parents’ interview protocols and subject's responses in a sentence completion test were used as the raw data for analysis. An analysis framework of conflict solution responses in self-other relation was originated and used in this study as the analysis framework. It consists of 5 orientations of condemnation, 6 orientations of solution and 4 types of response. Factor analysis was performed for the combined data from subject's replies and his mother's. Five basic response patterns obtained from the factor analysis were as follows: (1) “Evasion from the Conflict”, (2) “Behavioral Solution-oriented Response”, (3) “Autistic Solution-oriented Response”, (4) “Escape Impulsive Response”, (5) “Aggressive Impulsive Response”. Variance analysis was performed for the combined data from subject's replies and his mother's in order to examine the effect of age, social strata and sex. The results indicate that only the effect of sex is remarkable. That is, girls show more tendencies of self-condemnation, uncertain orientation of condemnation, self-concessive solution, and emotional-behavioral desertion. In order to examine the effect of the conflict partner in addition to age, social strata and sex, variance analysis was performed for the combined data from parent's replies. The results show that children blame and attack their mothers more than to their fathers with language or behavior: that the educated class parents consider their children to be more self-condemative than the working class parents: and that 10 year old children are considered by parents to be more other-condemnative than 14 year old children.