The present study was conducted, in developing Zajonc's study on “cognitive tuning” phenomena, to investigate in detail the interrelationships between the transmissionreception (T-R) conditions and the cognitive structure of certain information. In this study, therefore, T-R conditions as situational variables were dealt with in relation to the predispositions conditions as subject varialbles, and the content index of the cognitive structure as well as Zajonc's morphological index was used. The main findings are as follows. 1. The effects of the T-R and predispositions conditions on the cognitive tuning phenomena differ according to the properties (morphology and content) of the cognitive structure. 2. The level of the cognitive organization in morphological properties is directly related to the intensity of the predispositions. No appreciable interaction is found between the T-R and predispositions conditions. 3. The level of the cognitive organization in content properties is considerably influenced by the interaction of the predispositions with the T-R conditions: the level of the cognitive organization in content properties markedly increases, when the receiver's role is assigned to the subject having higher familiarity with a certain referent, or having deeper interest in it. 4. As to these results above-mentioned, some differences between morphological and content properties in the cognitive structure were discussed: it was suggested that the morphological index may reflect the general activation level of individuals, while the content index may reflect the specific psychological mechanism (such as defensive resistance to communication) of individuals who expect to receive certain information.
Effects of space and velocity on time estimation in the field of motion perception are generally contrary to kappa-effect observed in successive on and off of static stimuli (see Table 1). We try to interpret these phenomena on the hypothesis that in the field of motion perception the set in estimating time to use rather velocity than space as a cue may be easily formed whereas in case of the static stimuli the set in estimating time to choose velocity as a cue may be almost impossible to be formed. As time varies inversely proportional to velocity and directly proportional to space, anti-kappa-effect may rather be expected in the moving stimulus whereas in the static stimuli kappa-effect may mainly be expected. But in the motion perception kappa-effect may also be expected under the special conditions where the set in estimating time to use space as a cue seems to be easily formed, as you see in Bonnet (1968) and Rachlin (1966). The present experiment is so designed as to examine the effects of the two sets in time estimation in the field of motion perception. For time estimation reproduction method is used. Standard stimuli shown in Table 2 consist of the four series, each of which contains five standard times common to all series. In each series condition of standard time 1.50 sec is the main condition to examine whether effect is kappa or not, and the other four conditions are additional to form a certain set. As the main condition and one of the additional conditions are alternately presented, reproduced times are obtained in four times for the main condition and only one reproduced time is obtained for each additional condition. The types and the number of subjects are in Table 3. The main results are as follows: 1. Reproduced times under the main condition of series ELL are larger than those under series ESS, especially in the younger children. This effect is the same as kappaeffect, and as under these series time changes directly proportional to space and velocity is constant, it is supposed that the set in estimating time to use space as a cue is relatively strongly formed (see Fig. 1, and Tables 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9). 2. Reproduced times under the main condition of series VSS are larger than those under series VLL, especially in the adults. This effect is opposite to kappa-effect, and as under these series time changes inversely proportional to velocity and space is constant, it is supposed that the set in estimating time to use velocity as a cue is relatively strongly formed (see Fig. 1, and Tables 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9). 3. Findings under the additional conditions generally support those under the main conditions (see Fig. 2 and Table 11). From the findings described above, we may conclude that the effect of space on time estimation in terms of static stimuli and the effects of space and velocity on time estimation in terms of moving stimulus can be unified by the hypothesis of sets to choose cues in time estimation. Examining the findings from the developmental view-point, it is suggested that space works more easily as a cue in time estimation than velocity for young children. The main reason for this seems to be in the fact that the relation between time and velocity is inversely proportional, as being suggested by Piaget. 4. Relations between standard time (x) and reproduced time (y) are nearly linear under all series, and in regression lines (y=ax+b) a is smaller than 1 and b is larger, as subjects are younger. This tendency is stronger in female than in male (see Fig. 3 and Table 12).