In analyzing psychological data, it seems customary to use correlational or covariance matrices. However, we herein discuss the analyses of raw score type data matrices and of the inner product moment matrices based on them. First of all, we define raw score type data which we are going to use, and discuss the algebraic decomposition of raw score type data matrices and of inner product moment ones. We show that each element of the first component for both matrices is related to the mean value of each item under a certain condition, and that it may play an important role in describing psychological phenomena. Secondly, when the dimensions for data are over two, we show that the orthogonal transformation of normalized eigenvectors gives good interpretation, and that the rotated solution may be equivalent to a kind of factor scores. Two numerical examples are presented. The one is concerned with the application of our method to the analysis of latent structure of the work-curve for the Uchida-Kraepelin test. The model for the work-curve has been proposed by Kashiwagi (1962). The other one is concerned with the evaluation of the scores of the Fatigue Scale which was proposed by the Fatigue Research Committee, Japan. And we found that the scale is very useful in the sense of its interpretability of fatigue phenomena.
The purpose of the present study was to detect the phenomenal findings that had been detected in the partial reinforcement schedule in the case of the partial delay of reinforcement schedule. The findings were as follow: 1. The superiority of the performance level of the partial reinforcement was detected in all parts of the runway. There was a tendency that the nearer to the goal box area the part in the runway was, the later the period was in which the superiority of the performance of the partial reinforcement group appeared. 2. The effect of the detention time was also detected by the fact that Group P-10.5 (partial reinforcement group, detention time 10.5 sec) was equal to Group C-0 (continuous reinforcement group) and inferior to Group P-2.5 and P-30. According to the first purpose, the runway was divided into the four parts (i.e., the start box area, the first runway area, the second runway area, and the goal box area), the running time was measured in each part and the 120 training trials were used in the schedule of 10 trials per day for 12 training days. The four groups which consisted of five or six subjects (albino rats) were used. One group was no delay group and the other three groups were the partial delay (50%) groups. According to the second purpose, the one of the 3 lengths of the delay time in the goal box in delay trials (2.5 sec, 10.5 sec and 30 sec) was assigned to one group of the partial delay groups. The results were quite identical with those in the partial reinforcement except the result of Group D-2.5 (partial delay group, delay time 2.5 sec) in the first and second runway areas. The similarities between partial reinforcement schedule and partial delay of reinforcement schedule in the relationship to the continuous or no delay group in the performance levels suggested the possibility of same mechanism under which the effects of these schedules exerted on the performance level. The mechanism was assumed to be the frustration mechanism (Amsel 1952, 1958).
A normal wakefulness-sleep cycle of the male adult rat was observed polygraphically for 24 hrs. The male rats, albino or hooded, of 6 to 8 months, weighting over 350g, were used. There were little differences in EEG sleep patterns between the albino and hooded rats. Stainless-steel electrodes were implanted chronically in the frontal and occipital cortex and the dorsal hippocampus to record EEG monopolarly. A pair of stainless-steel electrodes were inserted into the orbit to record eye movements. Another pair of needle-electrodes were placed in the neck muscles to record the EMG. A small connector is attached to the skull with dental resin. The experiment was made about one week after operation. The rat was observed in a box placed in the soundproof and air conditioned room: the room temperature was controlled above 18°C, and the room was continuously illuminated during recording. Polygraphical recordings began between 6 and 11 p.m. and continued for 24 hrs. Daring recording, rats were free to move around in the box and were allowed to take food and water in the box. All polygraphical data were classified every 10 sec by inspection as either Awake (A), Light sleep (L), Deep sleep (D), or Paradoxical sleep (P) (Fig. 3, Table 1). Table 2 shows the appearance ratios of the four EEG patterns for all 10 rats, and Fig. 4 shows the temporal changes of EEG patterns in Rat 7 during 24 hrs. The pattern proceeds gradually A→L→D→P, and the stage of P suddenly changes to A. In the rat's EEG, there are more than ten wakefulness-sleep cycles a day. The cycle has a span of about 0.5 to 3 hrs. That is, the rat's sleep is polyphasic and it appears more frequent in day time than at night. Fig. 5-8 show the appearance ratios of the EEG patterns per hour, which indicate: 1. Pattern A appears more often at night than in day time, 1. Patterns D and P appear more often in day time than at night, 3. Pattern L appears about 20% throughout the day. Table 3 shows the appearance ratios of the A, L, D and P patterns on each subject in day time (7:00 a.m.-7:00 p.m.) and at night (7:00 p.m.-7:00 a.m. next day), and matched t's between day and night. All ten subjects show a greater ratio in the Pattern A at night than in day time, and this difference is significant at the 0.1% level. 9 rats show the greater appearance ratios of Patterns D and P in day time than at night. Both differences are significant at the 1% level. In this study also activity pattern of the rat is nocturnal type as many other studies have shown. Matsumoto, et al. reported that the appearance ratio of P per day was 7.0%, and according to Jo it was 7.3%, while Michel, et al. reported 10-15%, which is more similar to our own data. Further studies are necessary to clarify these differences.
Many psychological approaches since Freud have been oriented toward the clarification of the central role of intra-personal conflict in human behavior, and have generally subscribed to the view that organisms become involved in conflict every moment of their normal waking lives. The present study was designed to examine intra-personal conflict as a personality trait and degrees of conflict under experimental conflict situations. Forty university students served as Ss and were exposed to Brightness Discrimination Conflict situation where two lights of equal, or dissimilar brightness were simultaneously presented. They were also exposed to Motor Conflict which was obtained by having Ss practice two incompatible manual responses in random order and then presenting simultaneously the two lights which had served as signals for the two opposing responses. And then the same Ss were exposed to Affective Conflict which was defined as the affective judgement “Mixed” made by Ss who had been instructed to report the affective value of words under three categories: “Pleasant” “Unpleasant” and “Mixed”. The main results were the followings. 1. Conflict RTs under experimental conflict situations showed very high reliabilities and stabilities. 2. Degrees of conflict were dependent on the relative strength of competing response tendencies and not so much on the absolute strengths of these tendencies. 3. Conflict RTs gradually increased in proportion to the number of conflict trials under conditions of strong conflict, while they showed reverse tendency under conditions of moderate and low conflicts. 4. Strong conflict situations produce reliably greater intraindividual instability of conflict RTs than moderate and low conflict contexts. 5. Different modes of conflict resolution under motor conflict situation showed different degrees of conflict (Blocking>Double>Compromise>Single). 6. “Mixed” affective judgements quite definitely required more RTs than judgements in the other two categories under affective conflict situations. 7. Intercorrelations of Discrimination, Motor and Affective conflicts were all statistically significant. It was clearly shown that Intrapersonal conflicts exist in amount varying among individuals like the other personality traits, so that some persons are more disturbed by a given degree of conflict than others.