心理学研究
Online ISSN : 1884-1082
Print ISSN : 0021-5236
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42 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
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  • 青木 孝悦
    42 巻 (1971 - 1972) 1 号 p. 1-13
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    1) About 6, 000 personality trait words were collected from a standard Japanese dictionary (Meikai Kokugo Jiten, 88th ed.), 217 students' free descriptions of other persons and 43 students' free descriptions of themselves. Of these words, 517 were classified by more than four of the six raters into the category corresponding to the first category (generalized and personalized determining tendencies-consistent and stable modes of an individual's adjustment to his environment) of Allport and Odbert's study in 1936.
    2) Out of these 517 words, 455 were rated concerning personal desirability by 100 male college students and by 100 male adults from 40 to 49 years old. The results were compared between two groups in the medians and quartile-ranges. The comparisons showed wider ranges of the student group in the rating of individual words than those of the adult group, and a stronger tendency of the student group to use the rating points around the neutral point of these scales. These differences seem to reflect generation gaps.
    3) Personality trait words were analyzed also from their frequencies of uses to describe other persons. A group of the most frequent 127 words were determined by a criterion that the words were selected by at least five members of each of two groups of 139 and 78 students.
    4) On the basis of their meanings, the 455 words, were classified into 10 categories.
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  • 塹江 清志
    42 巻 (1971 - 1972) 1 号 p. 14-23
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although it had been predicted in the FE studies using the double runway and partial reinforcement schedule in the first goal box that the inverted-V shaped relationship existed between the length of the detention time in the first goal box in nonreinforced trials and the strength of frustration produced by nonreinforced trials, the data did not support the relationship. This study tried to confirm the inverted-V shaped relationship.
    Using the double runway, running time in each part of the second runway was measured, and 120 trials were used in a schedule of 10 trials per day for 12 days. Four groups were used each consisting of six or seven subjects (albino rats). In the first goal box, one group was the continuous reinforcement group serving as the control group (C-0), and the other three groups were partial reinforcement (50%) groups. The period of detention time (in seconds) chosen among the three lengths (2.5sec, 10.5sec, 30sec) in the first goal box in nonreinforced trials (2.5sec, 10.5sec, 30sec) was assigned to each group of the three partial reinforcement groups (P-2.5, P-10.5, P-30).
    Results were as follows: 1. There was the inverted-V shaped relationship between the speed in nonreinforced trials (F speed) and the length of the detention time. Furthermore P-10.5 group was superior to C-0 group in F speed. Therefore, the inverted-V shaped relationship between the length of the detention time and the strength of frustration was presumed.
    2. The difference among groups in the speeds in reinforced trials (R speed) also was detected and a tendency to the inverted-V shaped relationship between R speed and the detention time length was found. The inverted-V shaped relationship in R speed is discussed.
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  • 寺岡 隆
    42 巻 (1971 - 1972) 1 号 p. 24-39
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study was intended to investigate the applicability of the behavioristic analysis of selection strategies (BASS) to the problem solving situation. The tasks given to Ss were detection of the figure designated ‘dax’ by the E among the 32 figures used. In every trial, the S was once allowed to ask the E whether ‘dax’ was contained in the group of figures selected at S's option. The S was instructed to select figures repeatedly so that he could find ‘dax’ in the smallest number of trials possible. Two experimental conditions were used. The task in Cond. I did not need the S's memory loading for the outcome of preceding selections, and inversely, the task in Cond. II needed it. A total of forty medical undergraduate students served as Ss and each of them was given three tasks in each condition. Each response was classified into one of the nine strategic elements that were defined on the basis of the probability with which the selected instance would be positive, and each sequence of the strategic elements was classified into one of the fourteen strategic types. Furthermore, the sequences of the strategic elements were vincentized into eight sections. The main results were as follows.
    1) The frequency of appearance of E was the highest among the all elements, and that of G(-) ranked next in both conditions. However, the percent appearances of E gradually increased along the vincentized sections, in contrast with a gradual decrease with G(-). These trends were analyzed in comparison to the expected percent appearances of the strategic elements calculated on the assumption of random responses. As regards the distribution of the strategic types, the appearance of {E} was the most frequent and that of {G(-)} ranked next in both conditions.
    2) The percent appearances of E in Cond. I were higher than those of E in Cond. II in all the eight vincentized sections. With respect to the distribution of the strategic types, the number of the Ss who used {E} in the Cond. I was greater than in the Cond. II.
    3) Generally the Ss who used {E} needed fewer trials to solve the problems than the Ss who used {G(-)}. Both the areas of error in memory and the redundant components were larger in the responses of the Ss who were late in solving the problems.
    4) It seemed that the numbers of the hypotheses selected by the Ss showed a sort of curvilinear regression on the numbers of remaining hypotheses instead of showing a monotonically increasing function.
    5) As regards to the ingredients contained in a response such as the perfect or imperfect error in memory and the objective or subjective redundant component, it was found that the occurrence of these ingredients were slightly more frequent in the responses occurring near the middle of the problem solving processes.
    Lastly, the availability of several indices adopted in the BASS was discussed from the methodological point of view.
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  • 山崎 勝男
    42 巻 (1971 - 1972) 1 号 p. 40-43
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 祐宗 省三, 利島 保, 井上 勝
    42 巻 (1971 - 1972) 1 号 p. 44-48
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 42 巻 (1971 - 1972) 1 号 p. 53
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
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