The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristic relationship between recognition and reconstruction in the visualmotor function of cerebral palsied children. Three experiments were conducted, in which their performance in a block design test was observed. The block design test consisted of seven designs which where devised according to the stability of the frame (square, diamond, and cross) and the symmetricity of the figure. Exp. I Subjects were a group of cerebral palsied children and a control group of normal children. Performance of Ss in the tasks which required recongnition of block designs and these which required the ability to reconstruct block designs was compared between two groups. Exp. II Performance in the block design test of cerebral palsied children and of normal children was examined to find how the back-ground condition affected their construction. Exp. III Individual performance and its relation to the conditions of the tests which were administered after Ss completed the block design tests, were evaluated. The results obtained in the experiments were as follows: (1) There was no difference in the ability to compare and recognize similar block designs between the cerebral palsied children and the normal children, but the ability to reconstruct block designs by the cerebral palsied children was significantly inferior to that of the normal children. (p<.01) (2) There was no inter-relationship between the function of recognition and the degree of motor handicap. The ability to reconstruct block design patterns was influenced by the degree of the severity of their handicap. (3) The designs of the square in which the designs (colored parts and white parts) were symmetrical were difficult for cerebral palsied children to reconstruct. But, the design of the cross was comparatively easy for cerebral palsied children to reconstruct. (4) The designs which were unstable and asymmetrical were not easy for cerebral palsied children to recognize. (5) The cerebral palsied children, in their reconstruction of global patterns, responded only to the colored parts of the designs. In the translative pattern they tried to transfer the model to the conductive one. (6) Cerebral palsied children were disturbed by the background condition and could not make constructive use of it when they reconstructed the designs. (7) The background condition which consisted of color and lines or of only color made the reconstruction easy for cerebral palsied children. (8) The tests which were divided vertically into two parts, the tests which had 2/4 clue of the design, and the tests which had 1/4 clue having many blockings were difficult to reconstruct for cerebral palsied children. To summerize, in discussing the visualmotor function of cerebral palsied children, a distinction should be drawn between their performance on the tests which reveal their difficuly of recognition, and their performance on the tests which reveal their difficulty of reconstruction.
This study was conducted to examine the manner of the changes of “Test Figure (TF)” threshold, especially the decrement of TF threshold in the case of relatively low luminance of “Inducing Figure (IF)”, varying the conditions of IF and the interrelationships of IF and TF. Both IF and TF are presented by a Nagel' s adaptometer. It was also examined how different the whole threshold of the two figures which have the same size and are presented together would be from the threshold of only one figure. The results are as follows: (1) When the size of IF is larger than that of TF, only the increase of TF threshold can be seen regardless of the IF's luminance and the spatial separation between the two figures. (2) When the size of IF is equal to that of TF, and also when the IF's luminance is very low, the decrease of TF threshold occurs, but only in the case where the separation between the two figures is relatively large. (3) When the size of IF is much larger than that of TF, the luminance difference of IF gives greater effects on TF threshold than the size difference of IF. And also when IF' s size becomes close to TF's, the difference of the absolute luminance of IF has greater effects on TF threshold than the size difference of IF. These indicate the existence of a process where the absolute intensity should operate more strongly on the determination of TF threshold than the relative intensity. (4) When the two figures of the same size are presented together and are varied in their luminance intensities in the same manner, both figures summate and interact each other, and hence cause a decrease of each figure's threshold because of the addition of another figure. In this case, the interaction does not always become stronger as the distance between the two figures becomes shorter. With a certain distance and at the same time the largest apparent size, the decrement of threshold becomes the most remarkable. Hence, it is suggested that the visual mechanism should tend to be influenced more easily by the perceived than by the physical stimulus conditions. (5) Accordingly to the introspective reports, the manner of disappearance of TF is stable and IF's contour is fixed when the luminance of IF is sufficiently high. On the other hand, the manner is unstable and the contour is vague, and the size is overestimated, when the luminance of IF is not sufficient. As to the causes of this qualitative difference, it should be considered that, in the former case, foveal vision should be easy and inhibition extends over the surroundings of IF mainly because of the operation of the cone. In the latter case, fixation of the objects should be difficult and facilitation extends over the surroundings of IF mainly because of the operation of the rod.
Recent research has shown that a variety of autonomic functions in humans can be modified by feedback and operant reinforcement. The aim of the present study was to determine whether operant techniques, which have been shown to be effective in American subjects, would yield comparable results in a different cultural setting. An experiment on the operant conditioning of spontaneous skin potential responses (SPRs) was replicated with a sample of Japanese subjects. For comparative purposes, the experimental design and procedures followed those previously used by Crider, Shapiro, and Tursky (1966) with American subjects, where intraindividual and interindividual comparisons were made between contingent reinforcement (CR) and noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) of spontaneous SPRs. By roughly matching subjects (Ss) in terms of resting level SPR rate, 20 female undergraduates were divided into two experimental groups: a CR-NCR sequence group and a NCR-CR sequence group. Subjects in the CR-NCR group were reinforced with a 70-db tone signifying a monetary bonus for each occurrence of a criterion SPR during an initial 20-min CR period, which was followed by a 20-min NCR period during which Ss received tones at the same rate as during CR but at points of no skin potential change and not less than 10-sec following any spontaneous SPR of criterion amplitude. In the NCR-CR group, the sequence of CR and NCR was reversed. In this group, NCR rates for each S were based on the rates obtained during CR by the matched S. In the analysis, for purposes of comparison, the number of criterion SPRs was transformed into a percentage score typically used in studies of operant electrodermal conditioning. Intergroup comparison revealed that CR and NCR became differentiated by the first 5-min interval and remained apart thereafter, CR producing a heightened rate of SPRs relative to that of NCR. In both 20-min periods, there were statistically significant main effects for CR compared to NCR. Intraindividual comparisons also revealed statistically significant differences between CR and NCR. The overall pattern between CR and NCR observed in Japanese subjects was in accord with that previously observed in American Ss. However, the Japanese Ss showed a larger and more rapid differentiation between CR and NCR. This difference could not be explained by variations in operant level or reinforcement density between the two samples. Previous findings reported by others concerning physiological responsivity of Japanese Ss were not reflected in the Japanese Ss of the present study. The significance of cross-cultural psychophysiological research using operant techniques was discussed from the viewpoint that autonomic learning under different conditions of reward can account for cultural differences in physiological responsivity.
It is said that when questionnaire tests were used in personality researches and ratings of others, there is an inherent error which comes from over-stressing desirable traits. As an attempt to examine the nature of this error, factor analyses were made on desirabilities of two groups of items consisting of 28 words expressive of personality traits and with nearly equal desirability scale values. The Ss consisted of 80 male college students and 80 adult workers. From the former group, three factors were extracted as desirable traits and they were named as follows: 1. oriented toward industrious and persistent trait, 2. oriented toward kind and cheerful trait, 3. oriented toward stable and self-possessed trait. From the latter group, three factors were extracted as undesirable traits and they were named as follows: 1. negative of unstable and self-centered trait, 2. negative of passive and apathetic trait, 3. negative of unkind and affected trait. From the fact that the loadings of extracted factors prior to rotation rapidly descreased at the third factor with regard to both desirable and undesirable traits analyses. Rotation were also done by the first two factors through varimax method.
It is quite significant to investigate the law of perception concerning level-fluctuating noises when we consider that the levels of sounds which surround us in our daily life, such as music, speech, etc., are not fixed, but fluctuating at any moment. Accordingly, in this experiment, level-fluctuating noises were generated by systematically changing the physical intensity of noises by means of tapecontrolled system and their loudness was investigated by matching it with that of level-fixed noises. Both noises, level-fluctuating and level-fixed, were composed of 50 constituent white noises, on- and off-time of which were 72 msec and 34 msec respectively. One circuit of stimulus was composed of 5sec presentation of level-fluctuating noise, 1sec silent interval, 5sec presentation of level-fixed noise and 1sec silent interval. The levels of constituent noises of level-fluctuating noises were 66, 68, 70, 72 & 74dB in series 1: 62, 66, 70, 74 & 78dB in series 2: 58, 64, 70, 76 & 82dB in series 3: 54, 62, 70, 78 & 86dB in series 4: and 50, 60, 70, 80 & 90dB in series 5. 9 kinds of stimulus distribution as shown in Table 2b were applied to each series. By controlling the remote-control attenuator Ss matched the loudness of level-fluctuating noises with that of level-fixed noises, listening to both noises as many times as they liked. It may appear difficult to match level-fluctuating noises with level-fixed noises, but actually Ss reported that it was rather easy and intra-individual variance was small. As a result, it was found that there was the relation designated by equation (4)-(8) between the physical intensity and the loudness of level-fluctuating noises and that the loudness was expressed as a function of the arithmetic average of SPL in dB. The forms of equation (2)-(6) were found to be similar to the form of equation for predicting AL in Helson's AL theory, so a discussion was made about their relation. Further, Ss did not respond to the noises one by one which constituted level-fluctuating noises, but seized the constituent noises as a whole. Taking this fact into consideration, it was pointed out that it would be necessary to consider this problem with reference to “temporal quantum” of Békésy, “chunk” of Miller, G. A., short-term memory and perceptual present. Besides, as it was found that the loudness of level-fluctuating noises systematically changed in accordance with the width of the level-fluctuating range, the phenomena of temporal masking might be thought to intervene in this problem. But when the duration of level-fluctuating noises are rather long as in this experiment, it is not quite adequate to explain the loudness of level-fluctuating noises by means of the phenomena of temporal masking alone. Any way, this experiment is still a preliminary one and the data are not enough to suggest a definite model. More detailed and expanded experiments would be necessary in future in order to investigate the factors which regulate the perception of level-fluctuating noises.