The effects of time and velocity on space estimation in the field of motion perception are not always the same as tau-effect observed in successive on and off of static stimuli (see Table 1). We try to interpret the facts in terms of the hypothesis that in the field of motion perception the set in estimating space to use rather velocity than time as a cue may be easily formed whereas in the case of the static stimuli the set in estimating space to choose velocity as a cue may be almost impossible to be formed. As space varies directly proportionally to velocity and also to time, an anti-tau-effect may rather be expected in the moving stimulus whereas in the static stimuli a tau-effect may mainly be expected. But in the motion perception the tau-effect may also be expected under the special conditions where the set in estimating space to use time as a cue to be easily formed. In the developmental view-point, as it may be more difficult for young children to use time as a cue in estimating space than to use velocity as a cue because of the invisible quality of time, it may be expected for them to show stronger anti-tau-effect than for adults. The present experiment is so designed as to examine the effects of the two sets in space estimation in the field of motion perception. For space estimation a reproduction method is used. Standard stimuli shown in Table 2 consist of the four series, each of which contains five standard spaces common to all series. In each series the condition of standard space 4.0cm is the main condition to examine whether the effect is tau or not, and the other four conditions are additional to form a certain set. As the main condition and one of the additional conditions are alternately presented, reproduced spaces are obtained four times for the main condition and only one reproduced space is obtained for each additional condition. The types and number of subjects are designated in Table 3. The main results are as follows: 1. Reproduced spaces under series VLS are generally smaller than those under series VSL, especially in the younger children. This effect is opposite to tau-effect, and as under these series space changes directly proportionally to velocity and time is constant, it is supposed that the set in estimating space to use velocity as a cue is relatively strongly formed (see Figs. 1, 2 and 3, and Tables 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10). 2. Reproduced spaces under the series TLS are generally a little larger than those under series TSL, especially in the adults. This effect is the same as a tau-effect, and as under these series space changes directly proportionally to time and velocity is constant, it is supposed that the set in estimating space to use time as a cue is relatively strongly formed (see Figs. 1, 2 and 3, and Tables 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10). From the findings described above, we may conclude that the effect of time on space estimation in terms of static stimuli and the effects of time and velocity on space estimation in terms of moving stimulus can equally be interpreted by the hypothesis of sets to choose cues in space estimation, just as in time estimation (Matsuda, 1970a). These findings also make sure that velocity may work more easily as a cue in space estimation than time for young children. 4. Relations between standard space (x) and reproduced space (y) are nearly linear under all series, and in regression lines (y=ax+b)b is larger, as the subjects are younger. And the correlation coefficients between 4 trials for the main conditions are smaller, as the subjects are younger. It is thus suggested that reproduction of space may be more difficult for younger children because some degree of sensory-motor learning is necessary for them to reproduce space well (see Tables 8 and 10).
This experiment explored the effect of set on anagram solution times. The set was made in repeating the anagram solution that had a same solution method. There were two set. Ss participated in repeating the γ-type anagram solution (a, b, d, c) had easy-γ type set. The other Ss participated in repeating the δ-type anagram solution (b, d, a, c) had difficulty-δ type set. Ninety undergraduates served as Ss in this experiment. They were divided in six groups (n=15per group). Four groups of Ss learned five anagrams as set anagram problems and two groups of Ss did not learned an anagram as set anagram problems. But, all six groups of Ss were tested for three anagrams as test anagram problems. Only, the test anagram solution times were analysed. The main results were as the followings. 1. Easy-γ type set has made not only difficulty-δ type anagram solution times but also easy-γ type anagram solution times considerably shorter. 2. Difficulty-δ type set has made easy-γ type anagram solution times longer, but this set has made difficulty-δ type anagram solution times shorter.
The present experiment was designed to test the following hypothesis: When meaningfully learnable materials have been incomplete by learned and equivalence between new materials and the stored information has not yet been realized, inserted learning of the new materials which can be subsumed meaningfully by an identical transformation rule may facilitate retention of the original learning. Three lists of ten paired associates were presented (See Tables 1 & 2); the stimulus term was always a word and the response term consisted of nonsense syllables (NS), one to three in number with connectives. 43 college students served as Ss and were divided into experimental (M) and control (R) groups. Both groups learned List 1, being followed by List 3. Group M was then asked to learn List 2 while group R was required List 2′. All items in List 2 and half of List 3 (3a) can be learned meaningfully after rote learning of List 1. List 2′ and the other half of List 3 (3b) require rote learning. The effect of inserted learning was assessed by comparing Ss' performance on tests of List 3 before and after the learning of List 2 or 2′. When S's responses to individual items were classified into four categories (perfect; all three NS correct, but one or more errors in order or in connective(s); incorrect NS; no answer) only experimental Ss who had learned meaningful List 2 showed improvement in List 3a (See Tables 3 & 5). When responses were classified into six or more sensitive categories, the performances of both group Ss showed improvement. Performance in 3b, which had been much lower than that in 3a, showed no improvement in either case.
Two ways of theorizing may be distinguished in the explanation of the concentric circular illusion. The first tries to explain the illusion in terms of spatial interaction of the two contours forming the pattern, while the second in terms of the “figure-ground” relationship. The purpose of this article is to point out some faults of the first and to present some experimental evidence supporting the second point of view. In Experiment Ia, the distances from the observer of the three stimulus fields, i.e., the field outside the outer circle, that between the inner and the outer circles, and that inside the inner circle, were systematically varied, while the two circular contours were always presented on a plane at fixed distances from the observer (see Figs. 1 and 2). Thus, with the “figure-ground” or the “object” character of the whole pattern was modified, with the spatial relationship of the two contours being kept constant. The results showed that the amount of the illusion, measured with the usual method of limits, is not solely a function of the distance between the two contours (or the size ratio of the two circles) but depends on the so-called “object” character of the pattern. It was also shown that this was not due to the effect of accommodation or textural differences (Experiment Ib, c, d). In Experiment IIa, a modified method of magnitude estimation was introduced, and the “largeness” of the control circle was, estimated. The results suggested that the observer's judgement of “largeness” in many of the experiment of the concentric circular illusion must have been made in terms of “area” bounded by the contours, not in terms of the “distance between the two contours” or of “displacement of a contour”. The results of Experiment IIb, using the square comparison stimuli and the method of limits, supported this “area” concept again.
A series of photographs, based on each of the Blacky Pictures and arranged in 14 stages from the vaguest to the clearest, was constructed. (Fig. 1). Those photographs were chosen as test materials to measure the perceptual sensitivity and the cognitive styles, i.e. emotional vs. neutral. Main themes recognized in these photographs were as follows: Cartoon I; “suckling”. Cartoon II; “aggression (E)”, “holding (N)”, “collar (N)”. Cartoon III; “two dogs (N)”, “handshake”, “love making (E)”, “anger (E)”. Cartoon VIII; “three dogs (N)”, “protection”. Cartoon IX; “unreal dog (N)”, “scolding (E)”, “fear (E)”. (N……neutral themes; E……emotionally toned themes) Shorter the reaction time for the recognition of a theme, higher the perceptual sensitivity to its theme was indicated. And it was designated as an emotinal-cognitive style if one's sensitivity toward the emotionally toned themes were greater than to the neutral ones. Similarly, a neutral-cognitive style was determined. Considering their notable defensiveness, neurotics were employed as the subjects of this study, and the factors of repression-sensitization, which might have effects on those perceptual sensitivity and cognitive styles, were examined. Contrary to our expectation, it was proved that the repressors rather than sensitizers were more sensitive to those themes such as “anger” and “fear”, and tended to show more emotional-cognitive styles. In comparison with other studies, several hypothetical conclusions were drawn as follows: 1) To be sensitive to the self does not necessarily mean to be sensitive to the outer world. Consequently, patterns of experience, i.e. introversive vs. extroversive, must be taken into consideration. 2) Recognitions of the stimuli toned with mild emotionality may follow a conflict-free process. Recognitions of the stimuli toned with severe emotionality may fall into a conflicting process, due to the self-involvement. 3) Repressors, being opened toward the outer world, may be more sensitive to the mild stimulus-emotionality than sensitizers. 4) Sensitizers, being sensitive toward themselves, may be more sensitive to the severe stimulus-emotionality than repressors, due to their ego-involvement against it. From an additional experiment, it was suggested that recognitions by unhealthy and weak egos were apt to fall into conflicting processes.