The present paper concerns with the way how the congenitally blinds perceive tactually the compound figures in which two or more kinds of simple geometrical contour-figures are overlapped. In the first Experiment, the congenitally blinds were presented with sixteen overlapped contour-figuers (see Fig. 3), and asked to touch and scan freely each of them and to report what kinds of figures could be found there. The results obtained are as follows; In general, the blinds perceive these compound figures in the different manner from that of the adults with normal sight. While the normal sees a compound figure as that consisting of two or more simple, relatively large figures (in a way, called α-type segregation for convenience), the congenitally blinds perceive tactually it as though it consists of many fragmental parts (in another way, called non-α type segregation) (see Figs. 4, 5 & 6). In Experiment II, the adults with normal sight, closing their eyes, were presented with those compound figures and required to perceive them tactually; it was found that α-type segregation comes out almost always in their tactual perceiving of the overlapped figures. In Experiment II a, the same kind of compound figures were presented to those who had acquired blindness. Mostly those subjects attained to recognize the compound figures in the similar manner as that of the normal (see Table 2). From these results, further explorations of what psychological factors had brought about these differences in types of segregations were demanded. In order to determine if the subject with normal sight can always attain to α-type segregation in even tactile-motor perceiving, younger children with normal sight were used as subjects in Experiment III. Various kinds of non α-type segregation was found to come out (as shown in Table 3). It therefore seems that normal sight and visual experiences are not necessarily sufficient conditions which generate the attainment of α-type segregation. Experiments IVa and IVb were designed to examine whether or not non-α type segregation is obtained, only when a compound figure is perceived through tactilemotor system. Younger children were required to recognize stimulus-figures by peeping them through the tiny hole cut in the center of a sheet of black paper and to report what figures were hidden under the black paper. It was found that non-α type segregation would be obtained in such a situation as described, even when scanned by sight (see Fig. 10). It therefore seems not only that non-α type segregation is not specific to tactual space, but also that α-type segregation would be obtained in tactual space per se. The final series of Experiments was planned to examine if the congenitally blind's non-α type segregation could be disorganized under the following conditions; (1) where a compound figure is presented in such a stimulus context as shown in Fig. 12 (Exp. Va), (2) where size of a compound figure is varied (Exp. Vb), (3) where new kind of a compound figure consisting of complete and uncomplete figures is presented (Exp. Vc), and (4) where one of the overlapping figures is made of noticeably different contour-line from anothers (Exp. Vd, Ve). Results of these Experiments showed that the congenitally blind's segregation, non-α type ones, was weakened, though slightly. It was discussed that further study on what determines α-type segregation would be needed.
It is generally acknowledged that a child suffering from cerebral palsy shows many kinds of motor disorders. The auther introduces the novel term “unit motion” to describe the characteristics of motion in child and to analyze the essentials of crippled motion. Unit motion is the term applied to the simplest motion of human being which is a specific unit of one-way motion (stretching, bending, etc.), and covers the whole range of the trajectory of a part of joint (shoulder, elbow, wrist, etc.). The purpose of this study was to investigate unit motion in children with cerebral palsy: It was designed to examine the relationship between one motion part of the body and the other and to study a developmental tendency of crippled motion to find some characteristic of unit motion by means of factor analysis. The measure used in this study was the unit motion test, consisting of 72 items, which was devised by the author. A unit motion was to be evaluated from two aspects: motor ability and muscular tension. A six-point scale for motor ability was constructed, ranging from “very hard to move by one-self” (1 point) to “very smooth” (6 points). The grade in the test of muscular tension was also 6 points, ranging from “over tension” (1 point) to “adequate” (6 points). Subjects were 126 children, aged from 3 to 19 years old (70 males and 50 females). Based on the subject's score, the items were intercorrelated to form a 72×72 correlation matrix. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) left and right parts; shoulder, arm, elbow, thigh, knee, (2) the upper and the lower limbs; shoulder, arm, elbow, trunk, hip, thigh, knee, (3) shoulder, arm and elbow, (4) trunk, hip, thigh and knee, (5) left (right) wrist and left (right) fingers, (6) left (right) ankle and left (right) toes. (7) Mouth, breast, tongue and neck were each correlated too. (8) Eyes had no significant parts. The Varimax method of factor analysis was applied to the correlation matrix based on 72 items, and three factors were extracted. The nature of these factors may be summarized as follows: Factor 1 is interpreted as the abilities of “Speech”. Factor 2 represents the abilities of “Body locomotion”. And the items loaded with Factor 3 are related to the abilities of “Manipulation”. Subjects were divided by motor and tension total scores in to a high ability group, a middle ability group and a low ability group. When applied to the subjects of each group, the factor score showed differences. It was found that Factor 2 was lower than other two factors for all groups: Body locomotion is more difficult than Speech or Manipulation. Tension scores showed a tendency to decrease with age: The more the age of a child increases, the more difficult the usage of muscular tension becomes.
The purpose of the present study is to examine how the affective values of color and form influence the combined affective values of colored form objects when we perceive them. In a dark room, the same Ss, 45 male students and 30 female students, were required to rate 12 colors, 5 line forms and 12×5 colored forms on 20 seven-point scales, according to the semantic differential method. The scales were used partly to represent the three dominant factors, Evaluation, Potency and Activity, discovered by Osgood (1957) in his factor analysis of verbal stimuli and partly to cover all the adjectives appropriate to evaluating the colors and forms, furnished by the report of Tanaka, Oyama and Osgood (1963). In order to predict the affective values of colored forms from the affective values of colors and forms, which had been obtained separately, Multiple Regression Analysis for scales was applied in this study. This prediction was successful as indicated by high R: multiple correlation coefficient, out of 20, 16 R were higher than 0.90. The predicted values were also compared with those obtained according to Osgood's congruity principle and showed much greater fitness to the obtained data than Osgood's. The result of this Multiple Regression Analysis indicates that generally the color component has stronger influence on the affective values of colored forms than the form component. As the next step, each of the three matrices, color, form and colored form stimulus group was factor-analyzed. Each analysis was based on the mean scale value of all Ss for each stimulus. The result of factor analysis denotes that color stimulus groups and colored form stimulus groups can have the similar semantic structure. The most salient factor in these analysis was Evaluation; Potency and Activity were not so dearly differentiated. Compared with color and color formed stimulus group, line form stimulus group is less differentiated in the semantic space. As the third step, the relation between the results of these two analyses was examined. The scales in which color components have overwhelming influence on colored form components in the Multiple Regression Analysis were as follows: beautiful-ugly (color 0.95 form 0.01) warm-cool (color 0.92 form 0.16) cheerful-gloomy (color 0.91 form 0.12) like-dislike (color 0.95 form 0.00) healthy-unhealthy (color 0.94 form 0.02) gay-sober (color 0.92 form 0.13) manly-womanly (color 0.91 form 0.30) interesting-uninteresting (color 0.88 form 0.13) strong-weak (color 0.88 form 0.29) According to the results of factor analysis, all of the above scales were included in Evaluation. The scales in which form components have relatively strong influence on colored form are, rounded-angular (color 0.20 form 0.96) stable-unstable (color 0.52 form 0.77) ordered-chaotic (color 0.49 form 0.71) hard-soft (color 0.69 form 0.64) smooth-rough (color 0.62 form 0.60) dynamic-static (color 0.72 form 0.56) These scales are included in Activity or Potency.
In the first part, an attempt was made to construct an appropriate model of choice behavior in a two alternative choice situation so as to infer subjects' motives in the response dependent games (RDG) (Nakahara, 1967). The RDG in this experiment was a type of Prisoner's Dilemma game with one variable element of the payoff matrix contingent upon the subject's prior responses. The value of the variable element on the (n+1) th trial is determined both by its prior value and by the subject's response on the n th trial. The rules for the changing of the value of the variable element were: (1) when both subjects responded with a competitive choice, the value of the variable was decreased on the next trial: (2) when one or both subjects made a cooperative choice, the value of the variable was increased. Four possible models of choice behavior in such a RDG were considered, all assuming a Markov chain of the first order, and each implying a different motive on the part of the subjects. The four possible models were: (1) the Bimax model, implying a motive of coexistence and coprosperity; (2) the Nash model, implying a motive of securing minimum loss in any single situation taken separately; (3) the Minimax model, implying a motive of securing a minimum loss; and (4) the Max Difference model, implying a competitive motive. The payoff matrix in a RDG of this sort might display any one of the following five different types of trends in the trial sequences: (1) the A type, in which the variable would increase; (2) the B type, in which the variable would oscillate near the upper limit of the Prisoner's Dilemma structure (PDS); (3) the C type, in which the variable would fluctuate irregularly in the PDS; (4) the D type, in which the variable would oscillate near the lower limit of PDS; (5) the E type, in which the variable would decrease continuously. It is to be noted that the four models are based on both the subject's motives and the five types of mathematical structure of the RDG. In order to see the relation between the models and the above mentioned types, a computer simulation was developed with the results as follows: (1) the Bimax model led to the B type change; (2) the Nash model led to the D type; (3) the Max Difference model led to the E type. No correspondence was obtained with the remaing models and the types of change. The second part of this study was concerned with “relativity of choice”. The term “relativity of choice” was meant to indicate that the same choice behavior would be obtained in the five payoff matrices each element of which were multiplication by a constant of the corresponding element of the standard matrix. Five groups were used in the experiment. Each group was composed of five pairs of males and five pairs of females. Two hundred trials were run in each case. Subjects were all students of Osaka City University; they were not allowed to communicate in the experiment and were not informed about the terminating conditions. The monetary payoff to subjects was not done. The results showed that: (1) in a choice behavior situation of this kind of RDG, “relativity of choice” held independently of the actual Payoff matrix; (2) the percentages of each type of changes mentioned earlier were as follows: B type 10%; C type 12%; D type 66%; E type 12%. A type was not seen. Since the D type was most frequent, it was concluded that the subjects' choice behavior was usually based on the motive of securing a minimum loss an instantaneous situation (Nash model).
The skin potential level (SPL) and the skin potential response (SPR) during normal sleep were recorded on 14 male students. In order to investigate the patterns of SPL and SPR before, during, and after para-sleep, the recordings were taken from 20min before the onset of para-sleep to 20min after the offset of para-sleep. The findings in the present study were as follows: 1. The SPLs were found to shift sharply toward a negatively lower level about 8min before the onset of para-sleep. The SPL gradients just before para-sleep showed significant difference from those of all night which were found to decrease in negativity gradually with the course of sleep (Fig. 2, Table 1). 2. The SPR rates were found to decrease rapidly prior to the onset of para-sleep and they were positively correlated with SPLs. This diminution of SPRs could be clearly observed by visual inspection (Figs. 2 & 3, Table 2). 3. These distinctive phenomena of SPL and SPR that preceded the para-sleep will be a useful indicator to tell the para-sleep in advance. 4. The bursts of large amplitude SPRs were observed during para-sleep on more than half of the subjects. Of those SPR-bursts, there were two types of response pattern recognized, one like a mountain-chain and the other like a stairway (Fig. 3). 5. It has been emphasized that changes of skin potential activities are synchronous with changes of sleep stage. Our data suggest that the synchronous changes are lost in the period of pre and post para-sleep. Finally, inhibitory mechanisms of skin potential activities were discussed based on the data.