Two experiments were to investigate the effects of US intensity upon the avoidance conditioning in a shuttle-box. In Experiment I, 40 rats were run in a 2×2 factorial design combining two US intensities (100V and 260V) and two conditioning procedures (one-way and two-way responding). All rats were trained with the acquisition procedure for 12 days, 10 trials per day. The CS-US interval was 10 seconds. Number of avoidance responses, response speed, and the number of trials to reach the nine consecutive avoidance responses were major measures of learning. The results as a whole indicated: 1) Avoidance performance in the two-way responding situation was significantly inferior to that in the one-way situation; 2) By increasing the US intensity avoidance conditioning was impaired in the two-way responding situation but it was facilitated in the one-way situation; 3) Detailed analysis of avoidance latencies indicated that there were significantly fewer short-latency avoidance responses in the two-way situation than in the one-way situation. The escape response did not differ in latency in the one-way and two-way situations. Danger of generalizing the facts obtained in the two-way avoidance conditioning situation as the universal facts of avoidance conditioning was discussed. In Experiment II the effects of US intensity upon the one-way avoidance conditioning were investigated using four shock intensities including the traumatic one (150V, 300V, 500V and 700V) and 36 rats. The details of the procedure were approximately comparable to those for the one-way avoidance groups of Experiment I. Sixty acquisition trials were run in a single day separated by rest intervals of 11-12min every 10 trials. The results as a whole indicated that no interference of avoidance conditioning was observed by increasing the US intensity to the traumatic level. Facilitation of avoidance conditioning was observed only between Group 150 and three other groups of stronger US intensity due presumably to the ceiling effect. The concept of “freezing” and the danger of using this concept in a post hoc manner without taking the situational factors into consideration were discussed.
Factor analysis has been proposed and used as a method of statistical analysis of several measurements made on one individual repeatedly over a period time. The purpose of this study was to analyse the intra-individual difference of a single person on the work curve of the Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test by means of P-O-technique factorization. Furthermore, the purpose was to indicate to what extent the subjects' curve revealed. A unique pattern of factor loadings for each person and to what extent it was stable through the repetition of this test. Our students sat as the subjects for 40 days in succession. The performance scores of each row were directly used for the raw scores. In P-technique, 30 variables (row 30 of this test) based upon the 40 day to day variation of intra individual differences were correlated, and in O-technique, 40 occasions based upon the 30 row to row variations were correlated. The principal component method of factorization was applied to these matrices of correlations. The main findings were as follows. 1) The P-factors eliminated seemed to be identified with the factors already obtained by means of R-technique analysis. We might conclude that the greater part of the factor pattern was the same. 2) For the person indicating the higher contribution of factor I to all factor space in P-technique, the considerable stability of his work efficiency could be predicated over the entire time of the series. 3) On factor II and the following factors in P-technique, in spite of a smaller contribution to all factor space, the unique factor loading profiles of each person could be observed. This implied that the combination of these factor profiles made a characteristic feature of the work curve for each person. 4) In O-technique, we could eliminate several factors which indicated the patterns of a multiple work curve. This result implied that the unique curve of one individual was constructed by several different patterns of the work curve. But the higher loadings on factor I over the time of the series indicated that a rather dominant pattern of work curve could existed in one individual, and under the condition, in which factor I occupied the greater part of the contribution to all factor space, cosiderable stability of the work curve in one subject could be predicated. 5) About the factor structure, especially from the point of the factor loadings in factor I and II, we could observe that the work curve appearing in the first test was dissimilar to the curve of a subject having an inner consistency over the time of the series. This implied that, it was impossible to predict the immutability of one particular individual in the results of only the first test.
Purpose: The present study aims at to clarify the individual differences of affective meaning space by means of the semantic differential technique. Method: The following procedure was performed. (1) Subjects and Materials: Six hundred undergraduates were divided into 30 groups consisting of 20 students each, and 8 pieces of music by taped in a recorder were played to them. After the presentation of each material, Ss were requested to manifest their impressions of the material by rating 49 bipolar, 7-points scales. (2) Analysis I: The correlational matrix of scales generated from the above manifestations as a whole (600 Ss×8 materials) was treated by the factor analysis, i.e. it was analized by the Centroid and rotated by the Varimax methods. Thus, we obtained factors such as “affective evaluation”, “tense-relax”, “excite-calm”, “bright-dark”, and “general evaluation”. (See Table 1.) (3) Analysis II: Ss were requested to perform the questionaire to manifest their preferable feeling-tones of music according to four dimensions found in the result of analysis I, but the dimension of affective evaluation was omitted. Seventy-three Ss were selected as typical representatives and were divided into 6 groups according to the kinds of preference in feeling-tones, such as “tense” “relax”, “excite”, “calm”, “bright” and “dark”, that they had strongly manifested. Then, 6 correlational matrices of scales obtained from the groups were individually treated by the factor analysis. Result: An important difference was found between the results of analysis I and analysis II, in that each group of the typical representatives yielded a specific compound factor, namely, “the association of a factor of affective evaluation and a factor related with their own preferable dimension of feeling-tone”. (See Table 2-4) The demonstration of such compound factors would mean that those groups of the typical representatives have different structures of affective meaning space for each.