Two experiments were conducted to examine the developmental mediation theory. In Exp. I, an optional shift problem was conducted with Ss from 4 to 18 years. In Exp. II, preschool children and junior college students were given a card-sorting task in order to identify S's dimensional preference, and the discrimination task was given only the form-preferred Ss. The results showed that (a) the percentage of intradimensional shift (ID) was higher than that of extradimensional shift (ED) throughout all the ages (Exp. I), (b) ID was easier than ED for both age groups (Exp. II), (c) in the preschool children, there was a relation between speed of learning and dimensional preference, but in the junior college students. There was no relation between them (Exp. II). The findings were discussed in the light of mediational and attentional theories.
A series of photographs, based on each of the Blacky Pictures and arranged in 14 stages from the vaguest to the clearest, was prepared. These photographs were used as test materials to measure the perceptual sensitivity and the cognitive styles of children, i.e. emotional vs. neutral styles. The mother's attitudes toward her child's inclination to aggression and contactiong behavior were examined from the point of view of their effect upon cognitive styles of children. As was expected, it was proved that the children whose mothers are inhibitory were more sensitive to those themes toned with “aggressiveness” and “fearfulness” rather than the children whose mothers are receptive.
69 preschool children were asked to observe a model's response patterns leading to the same reinforcement, and were also requested to perform themselves on subsequent test trials in simultaneous discrimination learning of two shapes. It was found, as expected, that the more an observer observed any specific response patterns, the more the patterns that were observed occurred on the test trials, and that there are two types of observational learning modes; a “one step, nonmediational” mode and a “two or more step, mediational” one.
12 Ss classified 24 random forms successively into two arbitrary subsets in each of 3 trial-blocks. 24 polygons used were randomly selected from two stimulus groups which were derived from two different prototypes by a probabilistic operation using a double Markov matrix. The major purpose of the experiment was to make clear whether or not the subsets divided by Ss match the E-defined subset and how to utilize cue dimensions in the physical measurement space for classifing the stimuli. The results were as follows; (1) None of Ss was unable to reach the criterion by which the obtained subsets were statistically judged whether they match the E-defined subset. (2) Compactness was identified as the most important cue dimension. (3) The notion of similarity classification (SC) and dimensional classification (DC) proposed by Handel & Imai (1972), was used to find what kind of strategy should be taken for producing subsets. DC was employed in more blocks and in more Ss than SC.
The intra-individual distribution of errors in simple, monotonous, and repetitive tasks can be theoretically described by the Poisson distribution, since the occurrence of error in each S, being a rare and random probability event, will be the Bernoullian stochastic process. Moreover, the previous observations tell that the combined error distribution of a group of Ss fits very closely the Pólya-Eggenberger distribution. Then, the inter-individual distribution should be the Gamma distribution. 12 Ss were asked to add pairs of numbers in sequence as precisely and as quickly as possible, in a manner similar to the Uchida-Kraepelin test. The results indicate that the occurrence of errors in each S obeys the Poisson distribution, and the combined distribution is in fact the Pólya-Eggenberger distribution.
This investigation was carried out to know whether the same kind of results as previously reported (Sato, 1972) could be obtained or not, even when the nature of the stimuli changes from flickering light to intermittent sound and white noise. Results: 1) The curve, in which variance indices of the correct responses of the task given Ss were plotted against the frequency of flutter, showed two peaks for all Ss. The one peak was at 2Hz, and the other at 12Hz. In the flickering light exp. previously reported, the Ss were divided into two groups, each group having only one peak on this curve. 2) All of the flutter and noise stimuli were estimated to be unpleasant on pleasant-unpleasant rating scales by the majority of Ss. But small number of Ss estimated them to be pleasant in every frequency. 3) The relationship between response variability of the task and the feeling caused by the flutter and the noise was only slight.
Frequencies of spontaneous smiles, startles, and mouthing movements of 14, 3-to-6-days old neonates were measured for consecutive 4 hours in the context of their arousal levels. Moreover, each neonate was given the tactile stimulus to find whether it elicited smiles or not. There were significant relationships between the arousal level and the types and frequencies of spontaneous behaviors. Spontaneous smiles occurred most frequently in irregular sleep in which startles didn't occur. By contrast, spontaneous startles occurred most frequently in regular sleep in which smiles didn't occur. Mouthing movements were found to increase in proportion to the neonate's closeness to wakefulness. Smiling responses were not elicited by the tactile stimulus.
Four groups of 7 rats each were trained and extinguished in a straight runway. The Ss in a given group experienced one of two acquisition levels (10 or 60 continuously reinforced trials) and one of two intertrial intervals (2min or 20min). An overtraining extinction effect (a decrease in resistance to extinction for groups experiencing extended training) was observed under both intertrial interval groups, and the spaced groups were more resistant to extinction than the massed groups. The data suggested that the intertrial interval was not a determinant of the overtraining extinction effect. The obtained OEE may be attributable to large amount of incentive used.