The purpose of this study is concerned with the developmental characteristics of mentally retarded children's EEG in the resting state. Subjects were 108 normal children and 112 mentally retarded children without exogenous history, motor disorders and EEG abnormalities. Their ages ranged from 3 to 15 in the normal and from 7 to 18 in the retarded. The EEGs were recorded monopolarly from the six regions along the middle line, and the bilateral temporal regions. The EEGs were analysed by the band pass filter EEG analyzer. These results show lower frequency in the retarded children's EEG than that of the normal children and may suggest the retardation of the development of their brain. There is little difference, however, in the developmental process of EEG between them.
A series of 3 experiments was designed to investigate the effects of motivational instructions upon double alternation learning. The Ss were required to find which of the 2 finger keys resulted in fewer numbers of pedal-presses to light an end signal. When both the speed and motive instructions were given simultaneously, the performance in double alternation learning was significantly improved with the given motivational instructions. When either of these instructions was given alone, the instruction to induce low motivation resulted in the most efficient learning. Making the problem more difficult, it was found that the higher the subjects were motivated, the faster but the less correctly they responded. These results were discussed in terms of the differences between the positive and negative reaction times. It was suggested that acceleration of responses should interfere with information processing.
32 five-year-old children, constituting 3 groups, AM (models were their own mothers perceived as accepting by them), RM (mother-models, rejecting) and UF (an unknown female model), were presented models through VTR acting with somewhat aggressive and novel behavior. Occurences of imitative behavior were observed in the same situation as the models acted for VTR. Results were as follows; AM were more imitative in behavior than RM, and RM showed a little more imitative in behavior than UF; there were not any significant differences of imitative tendencies as between boys and girls. Supplemental data indicated that AM and RM showed more concentrated attitude than UF when witnessing the VTR and AM remembered a greater amount of the behavioral units presented by models than did RM and UF.
This study was designed to examine developmentally the effects of labeling (no label vs. label) and delay-of-recall (15-sec vs. 0-sec) on serial STM. The Ss were kindergarten, first-grade and fourth-grade children. The Ss were tested individually using the probe technique. For all groups, STM performances were the same, and primacy and recency effects were found. There was no labeling effect for fourth-graders, but for the other groups labeling facilitated a recency effect. As to a primacy effect, labeling disturbed it in kindergarteners but facilitated it in first-graders. Delay-of-recall had a disturbing effect upon both primacy and recency effects in kindergarteners but only upon the latter in the other groups. It was suggested that these findings couldn't be explained by the rehearsal hypothesis.
This study explored factors underlying interpersonal attitudes among Japanese Ss. 30 affective-state verbs and 20 complex stimulus persons were first selected, and then this Behavioral Differential-type form was administered for ratings by 54 male and female undergraduate Ss. Factor analysis yielded four verb-scale factors: nurturance-rejection, “amae” (dependency), superiority-inferiority, and pity-envy. The following factors were also found for the stimulus persons: guilt, aggressiveness, dependency, envy-inferiority. It is suggested that this four factor structure for interpersonal attitudes may form the following quadrants or a “circle”; namely, (a) nurturance-guilt, (b) aggressiveness, (c) envy-inferiority, (d) “amae” (dependency). Finally, it is proposed that “oime” (guilty feeling) is a cardinal element in the interpersonal attitude structure of the Japanese.
2 severely handicapped cerebral palsied Ss (Y. K. & T. N.) who could hardly control their limbs voluntarily nor articulate speech sounds were given a systematic training for the formation of verbal behavior. Y. K., in addition to severe paralysis in his speech apparatus, had a hearing loss in high frequency bands; therefore, letters were selected as the medium for both receptive and expressive system. In T. N., vocal sounds as the receptive medium, and configulational patterns consisting of seven dots as the expressive medium were used respectively. To use these signs as media, essential learning process necessary for the differentiation of receptive system and for the formation of expressive system by voluntary movement was explored, and then, several steps were taken to facilitate the correspondence of the sign system to phenomenal objects or behavior system.