A new criterion which is based on the principle of linear regression analysis is proposed concerning the estimation of the number of factors in multiple factor analysis. Following a short historical review on the number of factors, the emphasis is placed on the necessity of a new type of criterion, and a linear regression criterion is proposed based on the regression of the reproduced off-diagonal elements with an assigned number of factors on the corresponding elements in the original correlation matrix. In the last section some related important topics which are necessary for further sophistication of our proposal are discussed.
There are two statistical methods of analysis of SD data; Design 1 and Design 2. In this article, the meaning of Design 2 is explored under the assumption that it has psychological meaning quite distinct from Design 1. Stimuli are five pictures. 40 scales are used. Ss are extroverts and introverts. Procedure is Design 2. In introverts two factors about stimuli, two about stimuli and Ss, and three about Ss were discovered. In extroverts two factors about stimuli, two about stimuli and Ss were discovered. Against absolutism (Design 1), relativism (Design 2) is possible, and the meaning of factors must be considered in psychological context.
This research was concerned with the development of the mentally retarded children's EEG. The subjects used were 36 normal and 39 mentally retarded children. The ages ranged from 3 to 15 in the normal and from 7 to 18 in the retarded. EEG was recorded monopolarly from the frontal, the central, the parietal and the occipital regions along the middle line, and the bilateral temporal regions. The EEG was put to auto-power spectrum analysis by the general purpose digital computer. When a dominant component in the spectrum appeared at frequencies lower than 8 Hz, subordinate components were manifest at frequencies higher than 8 Hz. On the contrary, when a dominant component appeared at frequencies higher than 8 Hz, subordinate components appeared at lower frequencies. These results were observed both in the normal and retarded. It was pointed out that it is important to examine both the dominant and the subordinate frequency in the developmental study of EEG components of EEG by auto-power spectrum analysis.
According to Fishbein's theory, behavior (B) is a function of behavioral-intention (BI), which is determined by attitude toward the act (Aact) and social-normative-beliefs (NBs). Aact was measured by seven-point Semantic Differential scales in a questionnaire. Other variables were measured in a similar manner. Subjects were 404 and 413 students. Multiple correlations of Aact and NBs on BI or B were higher than correlations of Aact (or NBs) and BI (or B). Regression coefficients varied with behaviors and actor's sex. Thus, Aact and NBs are effective predictors of behavior. Relative importance of Aact and NBs varies with behavior and sex.
To determine the inhibitory effect of negative stimulus in discrimination learning, 91 preschool children were trained on shape discrimination. 4 groups received differential amounts of training in original learning. The effects were evaluated in terms of performance during reversal in which a new negative stimulus was introduced. A nonmonotonic function of the degree of original learning was found: the latency on the first reversal trial was longer for Ss with no original learning and for those oveftrained, while it was shorter for those with intermediate degrees of original learning.
The electrical activities of the brain, especially the contingent negative variation (CNV) and the sensory evoked potentials (SEP), were studied under two different conditions of stimulus presentation in the simple reaction experiment. In one condition, both preparatory and reaction stimuli were presented at random by the experimenter. In another, a preparatory stimulus was presented contingent upon subject's spontaneous response, which was followed after a given foreperiod by a reaction stimulus. Main findings were as follows; (1) Amplitude of the CNV was larger in the former than in the latter. (2) The late positive component of the SEP showed larger amplitude in the former than in the latter.