The purpose of this study was to consider the relationship between Barron's Es scale and Klopfer's RPRS. The Es scale was administered to 189 adults. The Rorschach test was individually-administered to 31 of these subjects, selected at random; the RPRS scores were then assessed. By factor-analyzing the Es scale, six factors were extracted. The correlations between the 6 RPRS scores and the 6 Es factors were computed. There were correlations between [FM] and factor IV, [m] and factor IV, [Cl] and factor II, [FL] and factor III, but [M] and [Sh] showed no correlation with any Es factor. It was concluded that the Es scale and the RPRS do not measure the same personality attributes, but are comparable to each other in several respects.
The present study tried to distinguish 2 groups of aware Ss in verbal conditioning: those who acquired the concept of the item to be conditioned and those who were only aware of the contingency between the item to be conditioned and the reinforcement. Through interview, the Ss were classified into unware Ss (No awareness group), Ss who were aware of the contingency only (Association group) and Ss who acquired the concept (Concept group). The main results were as follows: (a) Successful conditioning occurred only in Concept group. (b) Both No awareness and Association groups did not show a significant increment of performance on acquisition trials. (c) There was no relationship between the acquisition of concept and the number of subterms or the level of their relatedness. The relevance of the present dichotomy to Greenspoon and Taffel type paradigms was discussed.
(a) The purpose of this study was to observe the persistence of the experimentally induced resistance to persuasive messages concerning three issues, regarded as undoubtedly true. (b) Experiments consisted of a defensive session where Ss read both arguments against an issue and counterarguments supporting the issue, and an attacking session where Ss were given persuasive communications. (c) The results of rating final belief levels about the issue on 15 point-scale showed that resistance was not induced so explicitly on the ambiguous issues involving some questionable lines of argument. (d) In this investigation, Ss tended to change their opinion toward the direction intended by persuasive messages, and the direct presentation of refutational arguments seemed to take more effects than that Ss realize, from those arguments, how vulnerable and ambiguous such issues were.
72 preschoolers observed the first and second phases of optional shift and performed themselves in the third phase. The observational trials in the first phase were 10, 20 and 30 in Groups I, II and III, respectively. In Groups II and III, intradimensional shift (IDS) was learned more than extradimensional shift (EDS), but in Group I, no difference was found between IDS and EDS. As to IDS, Group II performed better than Group I, but Group III learned less than Group I. In Group III, inconsistent response (ICR) was learned more than IDS and EDS, while the contrary is true for Group I. The results were discussed in terms of two observational learning modes; a mediational mode and a nonmediational one.
Crippled adolescents were divided into 2 groups in terms of stability of self-concept, “stable group” and “unstable group”. An experiment on level of aspiration using the substitution task was administered in two situations. Results: (1) In an ego-involved situation, aspiration level and performance level of the groups were higher than in a neutral situation. (2) In the stable group, extreme and unusual goal-setting did not increase in the ego-involved situation as compared to the neutral situation. But, in the unstable group, they did.
The effect of dimensional preference (for either color or form) on reversal and nonreversal shifts was investigated at five developmental levels: preschool, kindergarten, second and fourth grades of elementary school, and junior high school. During the original learning of the reversal and nonreversal tasks, one-half of Ss were trained with their preferred dimension as relevant, while the other half were trained with their preferred dimension as irrelevant. The results indicated that (a) as a trend, the effect of dimensional preference in original learning lessens as a function of age, (b) reversal shift is easier than nonreversal shift throughout all ages, (c) reversal shift on their preferred dimension is easier than reversal shift on their nonpreferred dimension. These results were compared with the present author's findings in the previous experiments on the ID-ED paradigm.