The purposes of this study were to determine whether or not the confusion scale, “ratio” scale and partition scale can be considered a common scale and to decide on the form of the psychophysical function. Three scales of weight, based on confusion probabilities, direct ratio estimates and interval estimates were constructed only on the basis of ordinal information minimizing the Kruskal's Stress. The main results were as follows: (a) all scales were led to a common single scale through their admissible transformation, (b) the form of the psychophysical function was a modified power function f=k(s+d)0.55, where d is a parameter reflecting the time order error and the hysteresis.
The subjective factors determining academic achievement are intellect and personality (character), each carrying an equal weight. To investigate the validity and underlying factors of 16 personality traits called scholastic traits, a questionaire was administered to 3, 739 students who were either high-, middle-, or low-achievers. Based on correlation between each trait and academic achievement, 14 scholastic traits were found to be of either the “complete type” or the “semicomplete type” as determined by the t-test. Two factors underlying the scholastic traits, I (“self-adjustment”) and II (“emotional introversion”), were extracted.
Using the Semantic Differential, the factors in judging meanings of concepts, distances, and scale-checking styles were compared among college students (C), junior high school boys (J), and schizophrenic patients (S). Results: (1) The same three dominant factors were extracted in all groups. (2) As for the semantic structure, “ME” of the S's self-concept was separated from other concepts. TEACHER, SICKNESS, DOCTOR, GOD, PEACE, SEX, and LOVE differed between S and C. (3) Distribution of categories checked by groups S and C differed in the extreme, neutral, and intermediary categories on the seven-point scales. Conclusion: The Semantic Differential may reflect the changes of meaning in personality and psychotherapy.
Letter sequences of zero- through second-order approximation to Japanese were computer-generated using tables of single-letter and digram frequencies. The single-letter and digram structures of the sequences were tested by calculating correlation coefficients between observed frequencies in each sequence of 10, 000 letters and those of the original tables (with zero-order material, by the goodness-of-fit test to uniformity hypothesis). The results confirmed that the sequences were properly generated. Two sets of tables are presented. The first set, Tables 1-3, gives 8 examples of 25-letter sequences of each of zero to second-order material. The other, Table 4, gives 30 10-letter sequences of each type, selected with the restriction that no letter should appear more than once in the sequence.
This paper aims at examining the following three questions; (a) which is easier to recognize, Hiragana or Kanji, (b) which sex is superior, and (c) which composition of letters is easier to recognize, horizontal or vertical? The method employed is to ask the S to cancel one kind of particular letters in one case and two kinds of particuler letters in the other in both of Hiragana and Kanji. The Ss are from the age of 5 to the age of 14 years. (a) Hiragana is easier to recognize than Kanji from the 5 through 7 years old, and vice versa for the 8 years old and above. (b) Females are superior in performance to males. (c) The horizontal composition is easier to recognize than the vertical.