With a concentric-circular pattern, the innerr circle being the test field (TF) and the surrounding ring-shaped area being the inducing field (IF), the amount of over-or under-estimation of size and lightness of TF were measured. The difference in depth between TF and IF (from 0m to 5m) and the size of IF were varied. TF of midgray was presented either in front of or behind IF. IF was black in one condition and white in the other. The results showed that neither Morinaga's assimilation-contrast hypothesis nor Gogel and Mershon's depth adjacency principle can explain the present findings adequately. The possibility of applying some modified form of Coren's figure-ground hypothesis was discussed.
The aim of this study was to examine how normal knee-jerk reflexes were modified during adding tasks of three levels of complexity, easy, intermediate (Kraepelin test) and difficult. 8 Ss were assigned for each task groups, all were female college students. Facilitation effects in knee-jerks were observed when amounts of work done diminished (in the difficult task group), inhibition effects were observed when amounts of work done increased (in the easy task group). Amounts of work done in the control groups (no reflex-examination) increased by simple repitition. Knee-jerks of another group of 8 Ss, whose knee-jerks had been measured during the first trial of the intermediate task, were more facilitated than knee-jerks measured during the second trial.
A single trait factor, Calculation Speed, and five state factors, General Energy Level, Fatigue, Excitation, Rhythm and Volitional Tention, are extracted from a (30×30) correlation matrix obtained from a 30-minute performance of simple additions of two single-digit numbers in the Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test. Factor scores are estimated by the multiple regression method and thirty error factors are calculated by substituting them into the formula of the factor analytic model. The distributions of common and error factor scores are completely normal with the zero mean and the unit variance in each. Discrepancies between the observed and synthetic data are found to be very small. A computer program in Fortran language is also prepared as an objective evaluation of the Uchida-Kraepelin Test.
2 experiments were designed to examine the effects of positive and negative reinforcers on the frequency of spontaneous GSRs. The first experiment in contingent condition consisted of 3 groups: C-PN (positive reinforcer-negative reinforcer), C-NP (negative-positive), NR (no reinforcer). The second experiment in non-contingent condition consisted of 2 groups: NC-PN (positive-negative), NC-NP (negative-positive). Each S in NC condition was matched with C condition based on operant level. The results were as follows. During the first reinforcement period, C-PN showed an increase as did NC-NP and C-NP showed a decrease as did NC-PN. During the second reinforcement period, C-PN showed a decrease as did NC-NP and C-NP showed an increase as did NC-PN. NR showed a continuous decrease.
5 groups of 8 rats each received 5 training trials in a straight alley in order to assess the predictions from the stimulus-aftereffect hypothesis and from the nonconditioning theory of frustration concerning the small-trial PRE. 1N-R and 2N-R transitions were factorially combined with reinforcement percentages of 40 and 60. The 5th group was continuously reinforced for control. The PRE was clearly demonstrated, and the resistance to extinction was an increasing function of the number of N-R transitions. The 40% groups did not differ from the 60% groups. The results were interpreted as supporting the stimulus-aftereffect hypothesis rather than the theory of primary unconditioned frustration.
This paper explores the possibility of applying the mathematical techniques of the Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT) to the estimation of the true work curve of the Uchida-Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test, which has been widely used in Japan. Section 1 reviews the mathematical model of the work curve which was proposed by Kashiwagi (1962) on the basis of the principle of mechanical or electric oscillation. Section 2 discusses from the mathematical viewpoint those aspects of DFT and of spectral density that are necessary in the present analysis. 3 numerical examples based on 220 cases obtained at Japanese National Railways are presented in Section 3, and it is shown that the DFT estimates yield perfect goodness of fit to the true values based on Kashiwagi's item-test least squares regressional estimation model. Related problems and suggested approaches are discussed in Section 4.
In each of 2 age-stage groups (10 and 14 year-old), rank order correlations were computed over the relative rank orders obtained from the mean value-choice pattern. Each group was comprised by a total of 32 subgroups representing 2 social classes (upper-lower and upper-middle), male and female sexes, and 8 cities (in 7 countries), each subgroup consisting of 100 Ss respectively. A total of 496 inter-correlations were thus computed in each age-stage group in order to investigate value-choice characteristics of the 32 subgroups. As the result of factor analysis, 3 factors were found to be salient in both groups. For the 10 year-old, three major factors are indentifiable as (I) Steady and Comfortable Work, (II) Solid Occupation, and (III) Social Success, while, for the 14 year-old, the three factors are identifiable as (I) Comfortable Place to Work, (II) Steady Occupation, and (III) Social Success. On the basis of the factor analytic data, critical characteristics of the value system of Japanese children were examined and discussed.