A series of 2 experiments in free recall was designed to investigate the effects of rehearsal techniques on serial position curve and recall order and also to examine the relationship between input order (serial position) and out put (recall) order. Ss were required to rehearse the list items for 30 sec during the delay interval between presentation and recall. Rehearsal in the delay interval had more positive effects upon the items attributed to STS (last items of the list) than upon the items of other positions. In the rehearsal-delay recall as well as no-delay recall, the items being rehearsed in STS were recalled at the outset, and then the items retrieved from LTS were recalled.
300 children (5, 6 and 7 years old) were successively given 3 tasks in accordance with a 3-phases mediation paradigm consisting of labeling training (phase 1), motor-response training (phase 2) and mediation testing (phase 3). It was found, as had been expected, that 5 year old children could not use a verbal label induced in phase 1 as a mediator to make the relevant motor response in phase 3, while 6 and 7 year old children took advantage of them, and that the additional training to verbalize the label in phase 2 had a facilitative effect on mediational performance in phase 3, but the training in phase 3 had no effect on performance.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the energizing effect of cognitive dissonance. The hypothesis tested, derived from the Hull-Spence drive theory, stated: On a simple task, performance of Ss in the dissonant situation will be superior to that of Ss in the consonant situation. On a complex task, on the other hand, the reverse will be the case. Ss used were 80 7th-graders. Dissonance was manipulated by exposing each S to discrepancy between his self-image and his image held by his friends. The predicted Dissonance × Task interaction effect was nearly significant. Considering the factor of Ss' self-esteem affecting the effect of dissonance manipulated, the results obtained tend to support the hypothesis.
11 simulated correlation matrices of 30 composites, which were equivalent to the observed 30-minutes' performances of the Uchida-Kraepelin Test, synthesized by substituting 36 sets of normal random deviates of 0 mean and unit variance into 6 common factors and 30 error factors of the factor-analytic model of the test (Formula No. 1), were re-factoranalyzed. Complete isomorphism between the observed and the simulated data was found in the means, standard deviations, correlations, eigenvalues and factor-loadings and also in the weights for factor-scores. The results seem to give a clear-cut answer to the determination of the number of factors. Cattell's Scree Test is found superior to Guttman's criterion which uses eigenvalues of the correlation matrix with unities in the diagonal.
This study, with 63 female freshmen as Ss, attempted to invetigate the extremeness of initial attitude, the extremeness of advocacy in the role playing and attitude change. In the context of an “experiment on a criminal trial”, Ss with initial attitude for capital punishment were assigned to a lawyer-role condition. One-half of the Ss were asked to write essays to plead not guilty, while the remaining ones to plead 20 years' imprisonment. The Ss against capital punishment were assigned to a public prosecutor-role condition. One-half of those were asked to write essays to demand capital punishment and the other half 20 years' imprisonment. The Ss who were originally for capital punishment changed attitude, but those initially against it showed little attitude change.
In order to evaluate an independent versus dependent storage model for memory, the effects of list-item cues upon free recall of categorized word lists were investegated by varying the number of categories of the lists (4 categories or 12 categories) and the presentation order of words (blocked presentation or random presentation). The results indicated that cueing facilitated recall when the lists contained 12 categories irrespective of the presentation order of words. Considering these results, an interpretation in terms of the interdependence of stored items was suggested.