2 experiments were conducted to find some of the essential features of crippled motion in cerebral, palsy children by analyzing the relationship between their intended and actual movements. S were 75 C.P. and 20 normal children, and were asked to flex their arm toward the body with palm up from two starting positions. The analyses of the movement by means of angular velocity and the discrepancy between the actual and theoretical movements revealed that light dots showing the trace of movement delayed at angles between 30° and 40°, 80° and 90°, and 120° and 130°. Arm-movements of. the normal S also showed deviations from the expected curve at the same angle ranges. These findings suggest that there must be a guiding programme, an error-correcting system and a feedback system which convert the discrepancies between the plan and the outcome into regulatory signals.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the meaning and the position effects of pronouns in verbal conditioning of the Taffel type. In the experiment, 4 pronouns (Boku, Bokutachi, Kimi, Kimitachi) were the critical stimuli and the positions of 4 pronouns were equalized in the material as a whole. The meaning effect was seen: the response number of the first person group was significantly larger than that of the second person group in the operant, in the conditioning and in the generalization periods. In the high operant groups (the Boku and Bokutachi groups), no position effect was seen, but in the low operant groups (the Kimi and Kimitachi groups) and also in the control group the position effect was seen: Pronouns in the fourth step of the material was significantly less frequently selected than that in the first, the second and the third steps of the material. In this experiment Awareness the Generalization were also discussed.
To assess S's way of responding, whether in an S-R or in a mediational manner, S was given a conceptual sorting (CS) or a half-conceptual sorting (HCS) task consisted of several instances from two concepts. CS task became easier with age from 5, 9, to 21 years and HCS task was more difficult than CS at all age levels (Exp. I). It was concluded that S's abiliy to take advantage of conceptual terms as mediators increases with age, even though kindergarteners can respond in a mediational manner. CS task was learned more rapidly than HCS by 6-year-old children, but no difference was found between the two tasks with 3-year-old children (Exp. II). These results were interpreted as indicating that younger children responded in an S-R manner and the older in a mediational one.
14 infants were measured in terms of their smiling, attention, reaching and crying responses to the stimuli of 4 auditory and 7 visual from the 1st to the 7th month, every month. All except one had already been recorded spontaneous smiling responses at age of 3 to 6 days. Voices, bugles and rattles which had relatively highpitched sounds elicited more frequent smiles than the low-sound bells. The correlation coefficients between the smiling time recorded on the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th months were significantly high for the visual stimuli. The smiling time to each facial models was in proportion to the similarities to the actual adult faces after the 4th month. The correlation coefficients between the spontaneous smiling time immediately after birth and the elicited smiling time after 4th month were found to be significantly high. The elicited smiles of infants seem to be based on the innate spontaneous smiles.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the Epstein's hypothesis that an accurate event expectancy will facilitate habituation. In. Exp. I, 60 S were divided into 3 groups of equal size differing in expectancy for receiving an unpleasant stimulus. The probabilities of receiving the stimulus for each group were 5%, 50%, and 95%. 2 trials (anticipated impact and impact) were given to each S. In Exp. II, 40S were divided into 2 groups: In Group I (accurate event expectancy) each S was given information on each trial whether or not he would receive an unpleasant stimulus. In Group II (control) each S was given no such information. The findings of the 2 experiments (GSR, heart rate, and rating scales) indicated that an accurate event expectancy did not necessarily reduce initial reactivity, but it facilitated habituation. These results coincided with the results of the experiments by Epstein & Roupenian and Breitner.