The study consists of 2 experiments: in Exp. I, kindergartners and grade children were given a recognition test following stimulus predifferentiation trainings. Results were: a) the recognition of representative feature (RF) under the relevant verbal labeling condition was learned more by Ss than that of under the irrelevant verbal labeling one, b) grade children learned more than kindergartners in the recognition of RF, and c) the relevant verbal labels were effective with kindergartners but not with grade children. In Exp. II, kindergartners received a preliminary training to set them to label the shapes spontaneously during subsequent observation training. As a result, the effects were as much as the relevant verbal labeling training given by E. The results were discussed in terms of the development of the symbolism which functions in the concept formation.
The main purpose of this research was to construct a mathematical model of work curve of Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test (UKPT). The proposed model is composed of 2 components, i.e., learning and fatigue. The theoretical curve including 5 parameters was derived from the model, and Marquardt's method was used to estimate these parameters. Estimation of 5 parameters can be performed for each individual's work curve. The examination of validity of this model was the problem left for the future.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the interaction between positional image and action. Ss were required to project positional image of a specific part of their body through pointing action. It was assumed that the changes of posture, and correct and false feedbacks would have different effects on the process. The main results were as follows: (a) positional image (ID) was not changed in ordinal standing posture, while the stabilty of positional image disappeared in one-leg standing postures, especially in 2 contralateral postural patterns, and (b) in correct feedback, pointed positional images were closed to the real position. In false feedback, the pointed positional images were more distant from the real position, and were closed to the false position except in left ipsilateral postural pattern.
The validity of the Gestalt psychologists' assumption of the dual process in pattern recognition, i.e., articulation and identification, and the temporal precedence of the former was investigated by a psychological experiment and computer simulation on letter segmentation of cursive scripts. To test the possibility of letter segmentation without the identification process, children in a kindergarten who had never learned the alphabet were given a segmentation test. It was found that they can partition the script into letters almost as well as the adults except those scripts containing m or w. A segmentation model based on the 4 factors selected from the Gestalt factors was formulated and was simulated by a digital computer. It could partition correctly 95 percent of scripts and missed the segmentation of the same kind of scripts that children missed.
2 experiments were conducted to examine the degree of concentration on performance as a determinant in the effect of acoustic stimuli upon performance. In the Exp. I, 2 groups of female college students whose concentration on performance was high or low took part in a choice reaction time task in which 2 visual signals were presented in 2 conditions. One was a quiet condition and the other was an instrumental music condition. In the Exp. II, another group of medium concentration was added to the 2 groups and radio news and cross-talk were presented to S instead of music. The results showed that concentration on performance was a very important determinant in the effect of acoustic stimuli upon performance.
The relationship between awareness of learning steps and performance gains was examined by analyzing response processes of concept conditioning. Through interview, the Ss were classified into those who were unaware of the contingency (no awareness group), those who were aware of the contingency only (association group), and those who had acquired the concept (concept group). The main results were: (a) successful conditioning occurred only in the concept group; (b) the concept group showed performance increment only during the post-awareness phase; the association group did not show performance increment during the pre- or post-awareness phase; and (c) responses not reinforced on the pre-awareness trials occurred significantly more often on subsequent trials. Responses which received 1, 2 or 3 reinforcements during the pre-awareness phase did not increase on subsequent trials. These results were discussed in terms of cognitive control of concept conditioning.
The determining effect of personality similarity upon interpersonal attraction was investigated. (1) As for extraversion, 60 Ss assigned as extraverts or introverts rated 2 standard strangers, one extraverted and the other introverted on interpersonal judgment scales. They all were attracted the extraverted stranger as a whole. (2) As for need, complementarity as well as similarity hypothesis was examined. Another 80 Ss rated 2, nurturant and succorant strangers. Similarity effect was evident on nurturance, but not explicit on succorance. And complementary effect was only slightly found. Thus, the mediating factors underlying between personality similarity and attraction are reasoned. The functioning of the affective value of infomation is such.