The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive structure of the schizophrenic patients. Two, one word sentence, “father” and “mother”, with 15 different emotional expressions were given by both male and female announcers as verbal stimuli. Stimuli were judged by 29 normal students and 22 schizophrenic patients on 5 monopolar rating scales. Using both d-index and factor analysis, 4 factors were found. With Factor 1 no difference between the normals and the patients was found. With Factor 2 a little difference was found between the two, and with Factor 3 a great difference was found. Factor 4 was responded only by the normals. Considering the hypothesis states there are 2 stages in the cognition, the schizophrenic character was found on the second stage of the process where the reinterpretation of the information was made.
When we learn a serial list by using the organization strategy, the organizational structure may be strengthened as the serial learning proceeds. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the effect of the organization of the first learning on the second learning (transfer task). Ss were divided into 4 groups having the different degrees of the first-list learning, each meeting the criterions: 1/2 perfect trial, 1 perfect trial, 3 successive perfect trials and 5 successive perfect trials. The result sufficiently supported the hypothesis that negative transfer appeares in a U-shaped curve. Amount of negative transfer increased with the strengthening of the organization of the first learning and then decreased with the more strengthening of it.
Magnitude scales with 3 different moduli and a processed category scale of weight were constructed for each of 12 Ss using 13 stimuli ranging 13g-200g. 2-stimulus 2-response indentification experiment was also performed. Individual magnitude scale and category scale were approximated by power function and logarithmic function respectively, although slight but non-negligible deviations and individual difference existed. The variabilities of these 2 scales were in the same order while the variabilities in indentification experiment were remarkably small. Power law exponents were independent of these variabilities.
2 experiments were conducted in which Ss made the “same-different” judgement with respect to a pair of random forms which were serially presented to the right and the left VF tachistoscopically. In Exp. I, the stimulus materials were random form painted solidly, and in Exp. II they were contour forms. The major results of both experiments were essentially the same. The results indicated that right VF-lead condition produced more errors than the left VF-lead condition, and that the high complexity form group produced more errors than the low complexity form group. The tendency of left VF-lead superiority was more pronounced when the interval between the 2 stimuli was longer. These results suggest the possibility of the right hemisphere's superior function concerning the perception of random forms.
The principal purpose of the present study was to examine the adequacy of Saltz's boundary strength hypothesis in accounting for the so-called spacing effect in shortterm memory task. Exp. I was designed to investigate the problem manipulating both the spacing interval and the intervening task difficulty. In Exp. II, the intervening task difficulty in both the spacing and the retention intervals were manipulated. The results of Exp. I showed the interaction of these independent variables, thus supporting Saltz's boundary strength hypothesis. But Exp. II showed no interaction of these independent variables and did not confirm this hypothesis.
The purpose of present study was to analyze the intea- and inter- individual differences in reading abilities of the partial-sighted children. The Ss, consists of 79 normal-sighted children and 20 partial-sighted ones, were given 20 tests by the E. In order to analyze the intea-individual differences by the ratio of individual scores obtained, T scores were converted into Z scores after obtaining each T score of 20 tests. The partial-sighted were significantly inferior to the normal-sighted in 7 tests. By both cluster analysis and Q-technique, the clusters were found to be unstable in terms of the discrimination of the partial-sighted from the normal-sighted. 2 groups, however, were completely discriminated by the method of multiple correlation coefficient of which ratio was. 839.