In 3 experiments, children of 5 or 7 years old were successively given S (stimulus figure) -V (label) training, V-R (motor response) training, S-R training and the mediation test in accordance with modfied 3-phases mediation paradigms. It was found that in children of 5 years old V-R training had no significant effect on the occurence of the mediated responses, while in children of 7 years old it had the facilitative effect on it, and that in 5 years the overlearning in V-R training had no effect on the mediational performance, while the overlearning in S-V training had the facilitative effect.
(a) Intracranial injection of actinomycin D (2μg/10μl/fish) inhibited about 70% of the goldfish brain RNA synthesis from 3 hours to 4 days later. (b) The goldfish injected actinomycin D intracranially was given the passive avoidance training. Intraday-acquisition (short-term memory) was not blocked but interday-retention (long-term memory) was markedly blocked. It might suggest that the brain RNA synthesis is not related to short-term memory but is necessary for long-term memory.
An infraslow wave (ISP), with the cycle of 7-12 sec period, was observed in the plethysmogram on the ear, but was not observed on the finger or forehead. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ISP could be a new physiological indicator of psychic tension or not, by comparing it with the heart rate (HR) and skin potential reflex (SPR). In Exp. I, ISP, HR, and SPR were recorded during paired-associate learning. In Exp. II, those measures were monitered under 3 different levels of motivation: Task-orientation, ego-orientation, and punishment. ISP, HR, and SPR were shown to be reliable physiological indicators of psychic tension. It was suggested that those measures are related to different aspects of psychic tension.
A series of photographs, based on each of the Blacky Pictures and arranged in 14 stages from the vaguest to the clearest, was made. These photographs were used as test materials to measure the perceptual sensitivity and the cognitive styles, i.e., emotional vs. neutral styles. Considering their noticeable defensiveness, the neurotics were employed as the Ss. The Ss' self-images were examined from the viewpoint of their relations to the cognitive styles of the outer world. As the result, it was proved that females tended to show a reciprocal relation of self-cognition and the cognition of the outer world, but that males tended to show a parallel relation. Together with the results found in the previous studies, these results were interpreted as an indication of the tendency toward sex difference in social norms which bring about the intra-psychic conflicts which are accompanied by the emotional expressions.
An attempt was made to modify heart rate by presenting the Ss: E1-visual feedback and model signals, E2-feedback signals, E3-model signals, or C-no signals as a control group (6 Ss in each group). Model signal was a weak light which flickered at the rate of 20% above or below the pre-stimulus base IBI. All groups were required to either raise or lower HR alternately and E1 group was instructed to synchronize the feedback signal with the model signal. Significant bidirectional HR changes were found in 3 experimental groups and most effective changes were obtained in E1 group. In the second study, extended training to one S with E1 condition resulted in HR increases of 16bpm and decreases of 9bpm.
To examine the effect of the ductal reabsorption of sodium in the sweat gland of the measured skin potential level (SPL) and skin potential reflex (SPR), an inhibitor of the sodium pump, G-strophanthin was injected into the subcutaneous tissue in humans. A sharp reduction of SPL in negativity was obtained just after the injection, while there was no observable change in SPR waveform compared with the non-treated concurrent control if the reflex amplitude was ignored. It is indicated that the sodium pump theory can not sufficiently account for the production of positive component of SPR. It is also suggested that there may be not so strict association between SPL and SPR waveform as was argued previously.