The present study examined the personality factor (manifest anxiety) which affects the judgement of vocally expressed emotions. 5 emotional dimensions, love, contempt, indifference, grief and anger were used. Based on the MAS score, the 3 anxiety groups were selected as the expresser groups and the 3 MAS groups were used as the judgement groups. The ranking with agreement are grief (69%), anger (60%), indifference (58%), love (54%), contempt (42%). The emotions expressed by the high MAS group showed poor judgement of each emotion in comparison with the other 2 groups.
The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesis that the backward stimulus acquires positive reinforcing properties in aversive conditioning in terms of the stimuli on bar-press avoidance learning. Ss were 152 male rats. Backward, Feedback and Control Groups were made by operation of light stimulus. Each group was divided into F. and D. Groups, depending upon whether the stimulus is contingent upon spontaneous response. In the extinction stage, each group was further divided 2 subgroups. Subgroup I was run under the same stimulus arrangement as the acquisition stage, but the stimulus was not used in Subgroup II. Difficulty of acquisition increased in the order of Backward, Feedback and Control Groups. The hypothesis was supported: Concerning spontaneous response, stimulus contingency facilitated acquisition, but extinction occurred rapidly and the mechanism of avoidance learning was based on positive reinforcement.
The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the stimulus in serial learning by a probe technique. The possible effective stimuli were the preceding item of a response item (Ch) and the serial position occupied by a response item (Po). The relative weights of those 2 stimuli were compared with a probe technique in the beginning (B), in the middle (M) and at the end (E) of a serial list. 2 kinds of list, one difficult and the other easy, were used. The results of the experiment were as follows: In the difficult list the effective stimulus was Po in E. In the easy list they were Ch in M, and Po in E.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between value systems and the belief in Internal-External Control of the individual. The Ss showing high or low on the Rotter's I-E Scale were given the SG Value Attitude Test, a test of perception and a word association test. Results suggest the following: (a) The Internals (whose belief is in Internal Control) tend to choose Theoretical, Social, Political and Physical Values, while the Externals tend to choose Aesthetical and Economic Values, (b) expectances regarding Internal-External Control are the decisive factors to the selection of perceptual fields, (c) the Internals and the Externals are likely to respond positively to the stimulus words relating to their choices of locus of control, respectively. Accordingly, it is likely that expectancy regarding Internal-External Control, as a personality variable, is an acceptable concept for understanding the cognitive process of the individual.
Individual differences of emotional reactivity were estimated from 6 kinds of responses measured in the Runway Test (modified “Timidity Test”) in 974 random-bred albino rats. 3 different estimates of heritability of these responses were calculated from the regressions of offspring on dam, sire, and midparent. The types and degree of the phenotypic variations are very different among the responses measured. Heritability estimates of 2 kinds of responses which are related to the behavior going to the remotest part of runway from starting box were relatively higher (.30-.55). Heritability estimates of starting latency, time in the starting box, and the number of sections rats traversed were medium (.20-.40). The estimates from defecation scores had lowest (.10-.30).
3 groups of fish were trained and extinguished in an alley-type apparatus to assess the effects of partial reinforcement (57% random, 57% single alternation, and 100% continuous). They received 49 training and 49 extinction trials under massed conditions. The results indicated that fish (unlike rats) fail to show a partial reinforcement effect upon resistance to extinction, and they cannot learn to respond appropriately when rewarded and nonrewarded trials are regularly alternated. These results suggested species differences between fish and rats in terms of the rate of conditioning, and the responsivity to changes of aftereffects.