In order to examine the function of muscle for control of posture a frequency analysis was performed of surface EMGs taken from the arm (M. deltoideus) held at the shoulder level. The results indicate that: (a) Power spectra first with a dominant especially with respect to 45-55 Hz component changed significantly 2 components of 5-60 Hz and 65-75 Hz when a 5 min experiment were repeated 3 times, and (b) the ratios of increased power was remarkable in both bands of 10-15 Hz and 30-35 Hz with repeating trials. The control of posture was discussed from the standpoint of behavioral psychology.
The purpose is to examine the performance under a situation of conflict between 2 kinds of motives: One is the subconscious motive (Ms) induced under hypnosis, and the other is the conscious motive (Mc) induced in the waking state. 2 conclusions are sited: (a) The Ms resulting from posthypnotic suggestion disappeared more rapidly than the Ms resulting from hypnotic learning, and (b) the Ms was more strongly activated during a conflict in which the cue activating the Ms was the same as the cue that activated the Mc than in the conflict in which both cues were not the same. The result (a) suggests that by the procedure of inducing, Ms is divided into 2 parts, “tension” Ms, and “association” Ms.
505 mice of BB and C57BL/6 as parental strains, as well as derived F1, F2 and backcrosses were tested for spontaneous motor activities and eliminations in 4 different apparatus. A component being highly associated especially with open-field measures was obtained from the principal component analysis. This suggests that an individual score on this composite variable represents a certain unique open-field behavioral pattern. Relatively low heritabilities in broad sense (coefficient of genetic determination) were given by classic genetic analysis, indicating the substantially great effects of the environmental factors on this behavioral character. Further, albino mice in BB, F2 and B×B showed a very inactive open-field behavioral pattern than pigmented mice.
The factorial structure consisting of a trait factor and 5 state factors (Calculation Speed, Energy Level, Fatigue, Excitation, Periodic Rhythm and Volitional Tension) found by Tsujioka (1968) in the work curves of the Uchida-Kraepelin Psychodiagnostic Test was tested by the factor analyses of 11 correlation matrixes based on various subject samples (Table 3), in terms of coefficients of congruence among the factor loadings by Formula (4) and correlations among the factor-estimates by Formula (1); and also by the principal component analysis with Varimax rotation of the correlation among the factor-estimates which were obtained by various evaluation procedures. The results revealed the remarkable similarity with the factors found by Tsujioka, except for a partial inconsistency in Periodic Rhythm Factor. The transformation from Tsujioka's 6-factor model to the spectrum model of Fourier analysis by Kashiwagi, Nakatsuka and Okumoto was discussed.
A new latency measurement system was devised for multi-purpose (LAMS-I) use at the Department of Educational Psychology of Kyusyu University. This system has the following merits: (a) It can control 2 kinds of stimuli (visual and auditory), and can measure reaction times in msec units, (b) it is equipped with the circuit which is relatively robust against the internal and/or external noises, (c) stimulus presentation times, interstimulus intervals, and intertrial intervals can be varied independently, (d) the Ss can respond with 2 modes (voice or hands), (e) if an adaptor is attached to this device, latencies can be measured even with very low pressure and strain, and (f) the body is compact and light, and can be made at a low price.
This study was designed to examine the effects of procedural variations on young children's responses to classification tasks. The Ss consisted of children of 3 age groups, kindergarteners, first graders and second graders of which mean age is 51/2, 61/2 and 71/2 years, respectively. Each child was assigned 2 kinds of tasks to perform: One was to recognize those superordinate class materials such as flowers, children and animals, the other was to recognize those superodinate classes as to their colors, shapes and sized, Major findings were as follows: (a) The kindergarteners obtained a higher mean scores of correct responses to classification questions than first graders. (b) There were significant differences of the total mean scores between 2 sexes from each group. (c) The verbal facilitation effects were not necessarily established all through the experiments.