To test the relevance of the information hypothesis in the CER situation, a compound CS (S1 overlapping S2) was paired with shock in 4 experimental groups of rats, and suppression in water-licking rates produced by S1 or S2 was measured. During CS-US pairings, S1 was occasionally presented alone for the experimental groups in which the probability that S1 predicted the shock varied systematically from 4/4 to 1/4 from group to group. The control group (Group 0/4) received CSs and USs unpaired. Though results were not statistically significant, both informative and reliable S1s produced more suppression than their redundant counterparts in Group 4/4. As the reliability of S1 predicting the arrival of shock decreased, however, the S2 produced more suppression than S1 especially in Group 1/4. Implications of these findings to the more general problems of compound conditioning were discussed.
In a previous study, it was demonstrated that the peak at the end section of free-recall serial position curve can be maintained by rehearsing the end section items during the delay between the end of presentation and recall. This study aimed to deter-mine among (1) STS, (2) LTS, or (3) both, the memory store (s) from which these items were retrieved. No-delay (C1), Delay-Computations (C2), Delay-Rehearsal (E1), and Delay-Rehearsal·Computation (E2) groups were used. Group E2, as well as Groups C1 and E1, showed the U-shaped serial position curve. In Group E1 the end section items, while in Group E2 the front section items were recalled first. It was concluded that the end section peak obtained by rehearsing them is attributable to the recall (output) from both STS and LTS.
A hypothesis derived from social comparison theory was tested through 3 experiments. Ss were required to predict their performance on a novel task after a good or poor model had actually completed it. The experimental situation was varied in the respect of Ss' experience on that task (Exp. I), of the information about Ss' ability (Exp. II), or of the degree of the information enhances or threatens Ss' self-esteem (Exp. III). With no experience or information, Ss predicted higher performance when the model was good than he was poor. But when Ss had experienced the task or received information about abilities, model had no influence. While Ss were influenced only by the good model when the information enhanced their self-esteem, the poor model had strong influence when their self-esteem was threatened.
64 rats were run in a conditioned-suppression situation in order to test whether the Sutherland-Mackintosh's hypothesis or Rescorla-Wagner's hypothesis regarding the effect was adequate in explaining the Kamin's “blocking effect”. In Group PRD, in which conditioning of shock US to the compound stimulus (A+X) followed by the pairing of A with shock, conditioning to X was blocked. Group N and US, both of which had no experience with A prior to compound conditioning, revealed approximately equal amount of conditioning to both light and tone consisting A and X. In Group CS and RDM, in which A alone was presented and A and US were randomly presented, respectively, prior to compound conditioning, greater amount of conditioning was observed to X than to A. This finding supports Sutherland-Mackintosh's hypothesis.
The temporal course of stimulus recognition was measured after the kindergartners and 2nd grade children were trained in either to observe the stimuli or to associate them with representative verbal labels. The Ss were given a shape recognition test and both free and aided recall tests 3 times at different intervals (once-immediately after, 2nd-15min later, 3rd-1wk later) to measure the retention of associated verbal labels. Results were: (a) In kindergartners, shape recognition decreased rapidly according to the delays employed, while label recall was stable, (b) in 2nd grade children, both shape recognition and label recall were generally stable. These results were interpreted as supporting the view that the courses of shape recognition and label recall were essentially dependent.
Although most of the studies support the conclusion that a perceptual conflict may be resolved in the visual dominance, a few suggest its prematurity and methodological problems. In the present study, the conflict was made by the instruction and the trick in order to keep the S's naivety, and the degree of conflict was varied. The visual comparison (vision), the haptic comparison (touch), the visual-haptic comparison (drawing by a pencil), and the haptic-visual comparison (production by the plasticine) were used as the comparison procedures. The result was that the perceptual conflict was resolved in a compromise between vision and touch. However, as the degree of conflict became greater, the judgements in the conflict tended to depend upon the comparison procedures. And in such a conflict that the visual size was smaller than the tactual, the vision dominance tended to occur, and vice versa.
In Exp. I, the ORE (overlearning reversal effect) was investigated on a conditional successive brightness discrimination (CD-S) task. The 50-trial-overtrained (50-OT) group and the 150-OT group tended to learn reversal faster than the control group (N-OT). In Exp. II, 64 rats were trained on a simultaneous discrimination (SIM-D) task, and after zero or 100 OT trials, they were shifted to conditional simultaneous discrimination (CS-D). A 2 (brightness SIM-D vs. rough-smooth SIM-D)×2 (same vs. different relevant cue between SIM-D and CS-D) design was adopted. CS-D learning was facilitated by OT only when the relevant cue was the same between SIM-D and CS-D. These results supported 2-stage theory.