3 experiments were conducted to examine the significance of social space which a group maintain between others. In Exps. I and II using photographs of 2 male undergraduate students at various mutual body orientations (from 0° to 180°), an appropriate distance between them and impressions of their relationship were investigated. Main results were as follows: (a) When 2 men facing each other at the right angle oriented their bodies slightly backward (135°), the appropriate distance between them was the shortest. (b) At this angle, the impression that they are close friends and they are having a serious conversation intensified. In Exp. III, Ss were given the simple work of classifying a number of one-digid-numbers recorded on the tape. After the work was performed alone, the same work was repeated under one of 5 social space conditions. Main results were as follows: (a) Control condition (S sat alone) showed the greatest increase in performance. (b) Increase in performance in Known conditions (S knew the 2 confederates) was suppressed in comparison with Unknown conditions.
Elementary school children were used to examine the effect of awareness of learning steps on performance gains by using concept conditioning task. On the basis of a post-experimental interview, Ss were classified into groups depending upon whether they had acquired a superordinate concept (Superordinate Group), they had acquired a subordinate concept (Subordinate Group), they were aware of the contingency only (Association Group), or they were unaware of the contingency (No Awareness Group). Major results were: (a) Successful conditioning occurred only in Superordinate and Subordinate Groups. (b) The order of performance increase from the last block of pre-awareness trials to the post-awareness block was firstly superordinate, secondly Subordinate, and finally Association Groups. (c) Responses which were given no or one reinforcement on the pre-awareness blocks frequently occurred on subsequent trials in only Superordinate and Subordinate Groups. These results were discussed in terms of cognitive control.
2 experiments were performed using Norman's procedure to examine his hypothesis on the 5 major dimensions of personality perception (Norman, 1963; Passini & Norman, 1966). (a) A factor analysis was run on peer nomination rating data for male and female college students using Norman's original scales. 5 factors were extracted generally similar to those of Norman (1963): Extroversion (sociability), agreeableness, conscientiousness (responsibility), emotional stability (toughness), and culture (cultural sophistication). (b) From the data of peer nomination ratings using behavior descriptions derived from scales of Nagashima et al. (1967) only 3 factors, toughness (volition), likableness, and extroversion were found. Thus, there was a discrepancy among 2 results in the number and structure of the factors. Further discussion was made with reference to the dimensions of meaning of Osgood et al. (1957).
The variability of the 2 parameters in the Luneburg model, σ (the degree of depth perception) and K (the curvature of binocular visual space), was examined. The 3-and 4-point experiments were performed to estimate these parameters by using various sized stimulus configurations. For 2 of the Os used, it was found that the value of K was inversely related to the size of stimulus configuration (SSC) while the value of σ was constant. This finding was discussed referring to previous investigations and problems: The discrepancy in the estimated values of K between the alley experiment and 3- and 4-point experiments, equidistance tendency, and angular separation problem in the traditional size constancy experiment.
This experiment was designed to examine the effect of tone on the perception of figures in children, presenting a tone together with figures. On the basis of studies concerning sensory interaction, the factors producing perceptual changes of figures were also examined. It was found that the change of figure perception was caused by tones, not by suggestions nor by differences in pitch. Significant difference was obtained between the conditions with and without tones. The changes in color, shape, size, position and color shade were observed. As the extreme case of the inhibitional effect of color shades, the disappearance of figure perception was also observed. The results obtained in this experiment were discussed in relation to the sensory developmental study.
Selection and reception paradigms were compared in an experiment employing a 2×4 factorial design with repeated-measures in which (a) paradigm (selection or reception), and (b) problem (four) were varied. To explain the results based on performance, the frequency of focusing strategy and scanning strategy (which was classified in 4 strategies) was compared in both paradigms and among successive problems. The results indicated that with regard to the number of trials to criterion reception paradigm was superior to selection paradigm. And with regard to the frequency of strategies, reception group used more S-1 strategy (inference based on only one instance) than selection group, but no difference was found in other strategies. In addition, only S-1 strategy decreased in number with successive problems.
Goldfish were trained and extinguished in an alley-type apparatus in order to test the assumption that the PRE could be found even in fish by strengthening the rate of conditioning to the stimulus aftereffect of nonreinforcement. There were 3 groups: 2 partial reinforcement groups in which reinforcement ratios were gradually increased (Group gI) or decreased (Group gD), and one continuous reinforcement (control) group. The PRE was not found in Group gI. Group gD showed the least resistance to extinction, These results suggest that resistance to extinction is influenced mainly by a series of reinforced trials very close to the extinction period, but not influenced by the aftereffect of nonreinforcement.