2 experiments were conducted to examine whether a dyad composed of high ability members was a profitable condition to produce effective social interaction and thereby to achieve better performance. 3 levels of member ability were established on the basis of the amount of information necessary to solve the task, and dyads were composed in varying combinations of member ability. The principal results were: (a) The dyad composed of high ability members showed more emulation in problem-solving, and was negatively affected in performance (Exp. I). (b) When the group task required more intragroup interaction, emulation occurred to a lesser extent, and the performance was not lowered (Exp. II).
The interaction between voluntary (holding 4.7kg by hand dynamometer) and reflexive activities (knee-jerk) was investigated in the experimental condition. In the holding task, grasping was continued for 24 sec, which was repeated 5 times. 3 stimulations for the knee-jerk were provided during grasping period and one after that period. In the control conditions, the responses of holding task and knee-jerk were investigated, respectively. Ss were 18 female college students. The amplitudes of knee-jerk responses during grasping period were facilitated and the deviation of grasping from the predetermined level was large in the experimental condition. However, none of these responses was represented in the control conditions.
The developmental change of conformity was investigated in an Asch-type situation with 345 children from the elementary school, the junior and the senior high schools. The Asch-type stimuli were used, and the difference of response by age was observed in the peer-, teacher-, mother-pressure conditions. Main results were: (a) In the Peer condition the quadratic relation was found between age and conformity, with the highest conformity between the 4th and the 6th grades in the elementary school, (b) in the Teacher condition the cubic relation was found, (c) in the Mother condition the linearly decreasing relation with age was found, (d) the relationship between perceptual patterns and conformity was also investigated.
42 Ss rated goodness of 34 patterns of 5-dots or 4-dots located in 3×3 matrices, whose structures were defined by invariant properties for the 3 cognitive transformations: Mirroring on the vertical axis, mirroring on a diagonal axis, and 180° rotation. Some patterns were invariant for all the transformations, some other patterns for only one of them, and the remaining patterns for none of them. Results: The 1st type of pattern was best and was rated highest, the 2nd type of pattern was next highest, and the 3rd type of pattern was lowest. Within the 2nd type, patterns which were invariant for mirroring on the vertical axis were rated significantly better than the other patterns. In conclusion we suggested that the cognitive transformation must be performed in the process of pattern cognition, giving a pattern Gestalt property as well as making goodness judgment dependent upon transformation structure.
4 pollution concepts, namely air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, and noise, were rated by 102 female college students on 13 7-point semantic differential scales along with the concept of a man-made event in the form of traffic accident and the concept of a natural disaster in the form of typhoon. The data of all concepts were factor-analyzed from a correlation matrix based on the 13 scales. Extracted factors were as follows: Psychological stability, nature-artificiality, predictability and polluted area. In addition, factor analysis based on correlation coefficients among the 6 concepts shows that these 4 pollution concepts are perceived to be man-made events.
It is well known that the skin potential response (SPR) in humans took 3 or 4 waveforms. The authors previously confirmed, by contrast, that the waveforms were always monophasic positive in simian nonhuman primates, although those were always monophasic negative in prosimiae, cats, and albino rats. Both the skin potential levels (SPLs) and SPRs were recorded from the foot pad of nonanesthetized 7 adult dogs, using Ag-AgCl with 0.05M NaCl agar electrodes. It was observed that the SPLs were always negative (from -12 to -20mV) and the SPR waveforms were always monophasic negative. And both the pattern of SPLs and SPRs in dogs including the amplitude, time course, and frequency of spontaneous SPRs were similar to those recorded from cats.
The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that context effects in recognition memory are due to the Ss' semantic interpretations of to-be-remembered words which appear in different contexts from the presentation to the test periods. In Exp. I, Ss were not informed of the kind of retention test, and the presentation rate was 1sec per item. In Exp. II, the presentation rate was changed to 2sec per item. In Exp. III, Ss were forewarned of the recognition test. Context effects were found only in Exp. II; the results of Exp. I and III did not support the hypothesis. It was suggested that the context effects occur only when the experimental conditions enabled Ss to process the stimulus words even at the semantic level.
Cards consisting of 3×3, 4×4, 5×5 or 6×6 matrix containing randomly positioned letters were visually presented to the university student Ss for 50, 200, 400 and 1, 000msec duration and the effects of exposure time of the material on the recall of identity information and position information were investigated. The results indicated that the recall of position information (or the number of positions correctly recalled) was little affected by the exposure time, but the recall of identity information (or the number of letters correctly recalled) was significantly facilitated under the conditions of longer exposure time.