The purpose of this study was to examine the performance under a conflict situation caused by 2 motives, the subconscious motive (Ms) created by a posthypnotic suggestion and the conscious motive (Mc) created by another task instruction given under the waking state. The results were: (a) When the Ss were divided into 2 dichotomized groups according to their degrees of awareness of Ms, the activation of Ms was stronger in the low awareness group; (b) the conflict was the strongest for the Ss who had the quasi-awareness of Ms; (c) the reaction time was longer in the conflict situation; and (d) the writing pressure became strong when the nature of stimuli was changed.
The concept of “stratum factor structure” proposed by the author revealed the labyrinthes of SD results and predicted that in lower levels (structures by less entropy scales) the typical E-P-A structure will appear and in higher levels the denotative structures will appear. This hypothesis was validated by using TAT No. 1 which was rated by 167 Ss on 132 monopolar scales. The E-P-A structure appeared in level 2-3, and the denotative structures in level 4-6. Much of the personality factors corresponded with Cattell's 16 PFT.
Construction of a questionnaire, which was assumed to be reliable and easy to use, for the investigation of temporal changes of learning motivation based on the 3 component theory of Bradford's was proposed. 2 topics were discussed: (a) Collection of items consisting of adjectives or short sentences, and (b) their final classification based on an orthooblique type of factorization. Several technical comments were made on the practical use of the questionnaire and on both the latent and manifest ways of the evaluation of the 3 component learning motivation theory.
The purpose of this study is to test a hypothesis that the relationship intensity between personal constructs is stable in comparison to interpersonal perception. Role Construct Rep Test (Split-Half Form) was given to 337 university students twice with an interval of 2 months. The relationship intensities between personal constructs were highly stable between situations in comparison to interpersonal perceptions. Moreover, one index of the relationship intensities between constructs revealed a high intra-individual stability of the relative position of each construct in a construct system. Another index revealed a high inter-individual stability of the retative position of each individual in his group.
To examine the preschooler's learning mode, performance on reversal shift (RS) was compared with that on half-reversal shift (HRS) using unrelated stimuli of familiar objects. In RS all the sorting responses in the original learning were reversed and in HRS only half of them were reversed. HRS tended to be learned faster than RS, and evidence of independent subproblem learning was obtained through subproblem analysis. These results suggest that the preschoolers learn in single-unit S-R mode. However, the difference between HRS and RS was statistically insignificant and some Ss showed spontaneous reversal on HRS-unchanged items. All children at this age might not learn equally in single-unit S-R mode but some might learn in mediational mode.
To analyse the human visual perception process by backward masking, thousands of TS's and MS's must be exposed even in an experiment. If a mechanical tachistoscope should be used, labors for making such stimuli, for changing them at each exposure and for arranging data of the S's reaction would be exceedingly great. In order to save the lavors, a computer-controlled visual masking system is designed. The computer generates the TS and MS, exposes them on the CRT and collects the S's reaction. A command language named OLM-1 is used to describe forms of TS's and MS's and other parameters of backward masking. Using this system one thousand TS's can be exposed within an hour or so.
This study investigated the relationship between dimensions of trait information and attraction judgments using 50male Ss. It was hypothesized and generally found that social trait information related to ratings of preferred playmate (likableness scale) and that intellectual trait information related to judgments of reliable task partner (respect scale). A selected group of 10 social-type Ss showed sensitivity to social traits of target persons, whereas 10 intellectual-type Ss were more sensitive to the intellectual traits of target persons. These effects operated independently of the normative scale values of these traits.
The effect of verbal labeling on serial memory was investigated in this experiment. A total of 120Ss, 40 at each of younger (kindergarten), middle (3rd grade) and older (5th grade) children were successively given 8 picture cards followed by a recognition test. Half of the Ss in each age group overtly labeled the stimuli during the presentation period and half did not. In younger and middle age groups verbal labeling facilitated STM performance but not LTM performance, while in the older age group there was no difference in performance for STM and LTM between the labeling group and the no-labeling group.