The present study was designed to investigate the effects of vicarious reinforcement on performance and recall of the commodity preference task in preschoolers. One group (D-R) observed the model's responses (demonstration) with reinforcement, while the other group _??_(D-NR) observed them without it. After observation, the subjects were asked to choose the commodity items and to remember the model's items chosen under the non-reinforcement condition. It was found that vicarious reinforcement (the D-R condition) increased modeling performance and that the model's demonstration resulted in higher recall in both groups. These results were discussed in terms of both Bandura's modeling theory and Bear & Sherman's generalized imitation theory.
This paper was to examine the spatial extent of the Contralateral Suppressive Field by using a probe stimulus (20′ in diameter) method. It was found that (a) the suppressive effect, measured by frequency of phenomenal disappearance of the probe stimulus, declined sharply in proportion to the distance from the contour of the suppressor, and it declined more sharply near the center of the visual field and (b) the same effect increased in proportion to the contrast of the suppressor, but was independent of the width of the suppressor.
The laterality difference in the execution of the higher-order cognitive task, categorization utilizing a superordinate concept, was examined. The subjects decided whether the two stimuli serially presented in the right or left visual field came under an identical category. In Exp. I, outline drawing stimuli were used and the RVF condition superiority in latency in the “same” response and LVF condition superiority in the “different” responses were demonstrated. These results were similar to those in the previous physical matching task and suggested that a superordinate concept was not in use to execute the present task. In Exp. II, vertically written verbal stimuli were used and the RVF condition superiority in both the “same” and the “different” responses were demonstrated. These results would suggest the superiority of the left hemisphere in the higher-order cognitive tasks.
The effects of the information in STS upon the time to retrieve the information in LTS were examined. On each trial, the subjects were presented with ST set (7 noun pairs) following LT set (12 noun pairs) and were required to judge the phonemic relationship in each pair in ST set or to memorize ST set as well as LT set in addition to the judgment. The retrieval time of LT set followed by ST set was significantly longer than the time to retrieve the identical information immediately from STS, and significantly varied with the difficulty of the task for ST sets. These results were considered to suggest the characteristics of STS as output buffer affected by the attentional factor.
A hypothesis derived from theories of imitation was tested through an experiment. The hypothesis was that subjects under fear condition would arouse to an assimilative behavior, that is, arouse more bodily attachment and unintentional imitation than normal condition. Schachter's method was adopted in order to evoke fear and measure bodily attachment. To measure unintentional imitation, click was used. All experiments were made under the condition that one subject and a partner were seated screened from each other and experimenter. Each subject sat in his booth and was required to count click under the condition accompanied with fear (Experimental Group) or under the condition accompanied with no fear (Control Group). Subjects showed more bodily attachment and unintentional imitation in the experimental group than in the control group. This finding supports the hypothesis.
One hundred and ninety-two children of 5, 8 and 10-year-old learned how to identify 24 pictures classified according to 4 categories, each category consisting of 6 pictures. On the first and second trials, half of the subjects were assigned a constrained recall task where categories were stimuli. And a free recall task was assigned to the other half. On the third trial, all the subjects were given a free recall task. The results showed that the constrained recall procedure formerly assigned facilitated the recall of words with children of all age groups. This facilitative effects were also found with groups of 8 and 10-year-old children in the free recall task subsequently assigned, but not with 5-year-old children.
This study was to test Chalmers and Rosenbaum's hypothesis that those who performed themselves underwent greater interference effect on transfer than those who observed their model's responses during original learning (OL). 64 children were given a discrimination learning task of two dimensional-stimuli with two values each. Immediately after OL, half of them was given a reversal shift task with the same stimuli used in OL. The other half was given an intra-dimensional shift task with different stimuli, as controls. In the RS task, observers showed less errors and perseverance responses than performers. In the IDS task, no difference was found between performers and observers. The learning curves of four groups were consistent with the above results. These results agreed with those of Chalmers and Rosenbaum's study.
To examine the formation of new responses by self-reinforcement (SR), 48 preschoolers (five-year-olds) and 48 third graders (eight-year-olds) were asked to choose one of the four geometric figures, under the conditions of verbal self-reinforcement (V-SR), material self-reinforcement (M-SR), or non self-reinforcement (N-SR). A measure taken was the rate of successive choices of the same figures self-reinforced over the trials. Both V-SR group and M-SR group performed significantly better than N-SR group, but no increment was found over trials. It seemed that V-SR was functionally equivalent to M-SR in five-year-olds, while V-SR was more dominant than M-SR in eight-year-olds. The number of SR made by five-year-olds in both V-SR group and M-SR group was more than that of eight-year-olds.
The purpose of this study was to assess differential effects of pictures and words as stimulus materials on both intentional learning with rehearsal and unrehearsed incidental learning. Subjects were given a list of 15 picture-word pairs consisting of either animals or things, and were instructed to learn the pictures or words of the pairs. Pictures or words which they were not instructed to learn were assumed to be incidental learning items. The results indicated the superiority of pictures over words in both intentional and incidental learning irrespective of presentation rate (1sec vs. 4sec).