A concentric-circular pattern illusion was studied with the inner circle as the test field (TF) and the surrounding ring-shaped area as the inducing field (IF), to clarify the effects of the IF-lightness and of the depth relation between TF and IF on induction. In the condition of TF in front of IF, when IF became whiter and farther away, the usually observed distance paradox as a function of the size of IF tended to disappear and was replaced by a monotonic decreasing function. In the condition TF behind IF, the distance paradox was observed in any lightness or depth conditions. Contour was found to be another influential factor on illusion. Results were interpreted from the concept of “object” character of the stimulus.
To investigate the functional relationship between the right and the left cerebral hemispheres in normal man, the effects of verbal and nonverbal auditory loads on the visual laterality difference in recognizing line orientation and Japanese letters were examined. The left visual field superiority in recognizing line orientation increased with nonverbal load, and disappeared with verbal load. On the other hand, the right visual field superiority in recognizing letters increased with verbal load, and disappeared with nonverbal load. The results were interpreted as indicating that when verbal or nonverbal auditory load was presented to both hemispheres through both ears, shift of functional dominance occurred between the two hemispheres which were connected by corpus callosum.
This experiment evaluates the relative difficulty of learning to read kanji and kana moji. Forty-two children, three and four years of age, were each presented four items to learn: One kanji noun, one kanji verb or adjective, one individual hiragana moji, and One individual katakana moji. One hundred and eight different kanji and 42 different syllables for kana were used as items. It was found that the kanji were much more easily learned. 37% of the kanji were learned within three trials while 15% were learned on the first trial. Most kana were not learned at all. Meaningfulness is interpreted as being vastly more important in learning moji than length or perceptual complexity. The teaching of reading by whole words is regarded as superior to teaching by syllables or individual sounds.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' leadership behavior, the group power structure of pupil, their solidarities and norms in the classroom. Subjects were 3007 pupils from 83 classrooms of elementary schools. Main results were: (a) Centralizing structure of pupil was found more prevalent when teachers' leadership was strong in the P (Performance)-dimension, and their diffuse structure was found more prevalent when their leadership was weak in the P-dimension. (b) When teachers' leadership was weak both P- and M (Maintenance)-dimensions, the solidarity of the classrooms in terms of the centralizing structure of the pupil was found stronger than that of the diffuse structure.
The present study was designed to demonstrate the validity of repression-sensitization (R-S) dimensions as a defense dimension, and to clarify the characteristics of the defense by examining the differences of the defense responses as to verbalize feelings of anxiety. Rapaport's Word-Association Test (WAT) and MMPI including Byrne's R-S Scale and Taylor's MAS were given to 31 subjects. MAS scores, association reaction time (RT) and GSR to WAT were examined for 14 repressors and twelve sensitizers. The results were that repressors showed lower anxiety scores, longer RT and larger amounts of GSRs to WAT than did sensitizers. It was suggested that repressors defended by avoidance and sensitizers by approach, and that repressors intended to avoid verbalizing feelings of anxiety and sensitizers tried to verbalize feelings of anxiety.
The first purpose was to construct a reliable and valid attitude scale toward community thereby to classify the attitude. The second purpose was to uncover associations between the attitude and demographic and psychological variables. Two surveys were conducted, in which subjects were 764 and 1017 residents, respectively, in Nagoya, Osaka, and Hyogo. Two attitude factors were identified, named as Active-Passive (A-P) and Cooperation oriented-Individual oriented (C-I). Attitude types were designated as A-C, P-C, P-I, and A-I. Discriminating variables for the attitude types were desirable life style, political party preference, number of friendly neighbours, liking for the community, etc. It was concluded that the attitude scale constructed in this research is highly reliable and valid.
The purpose of this study is to examine the performance in a conflict situation between two kinds of motives: One is the subconscious motive induced under hypnosis (Ms) and the other is the conscious motive formed in the waking state (Mc). Tasks were given to the subjects in the three conditions of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic learning and the both. And the nature of differences of Ms in each condition were examined. Two points concluded are: (a) Ms resulting from posthypnotic suggestion disappeared more rapidly than Ms resulting from hypnotic learning, and (b) Ms resulting from the both posthypnotic suggestion and hypnotic learning conditions activated less than the one resulting from hypnotic learning condition. However the activation was more than the one resulting from the condition of posthypnotic suggestion; it showed the middle of the two.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the structure of visual similarity. Stimuli were two series of geometric figures, one of them was 16 rectangles (series A) and the other 18 “apparent” cubes (series B). Each stimulus series was given to eleven adults and eleven infants (five years old). Kruskal's nonmetric MDS was applied to observed (subjects mean average) similarity data. The main results were as follows: (a) The Euclidean model was more suited to the data than the city block model. (b) The number of necessary dimensions was two (series A), or three (series B) in both groups of the subjects.