Behavioral differences between high (H) and low (L) emotional reactivity lines based on the ambulation in the Runway Test were investigated by using open-field and hoarding tests. Subjects were 22 male albino rats of the 6th generation. Each subject was placed in the open field during 5 min for 3 consecutive days. Then, daily hoarding trials (30 min) were run .under 23 hr food-deprivation and additional five trials were given under satiation. In the open-field test, L-line rats showed higher measures of ambulation, rearing, and scratching than H-line, but defecation, face washing, and grooming scores were not different between the two lines. In the hoarding test L-line rats tended to hoard more pellets under food-deprivation and hoarded significantly more under satiation than H-line rats.
Rats were given two independent discrimination tasks in a Y-maze either to the criterion or under overtraining condition and the transfer of cue-association established during overtraining to the subsequent reversal learning in a straightrunway was examined. The effects of overtraining upon the reversal learning were as follows: In Group W, in which both tasks were reversed, facilitation was observed. In Group P, in which one of the two tasks was reversed and the other not reversed, there was no facilitation effect. In Group S, in which one of the tasks was reversed but the other task was replaced by the new task, there was some facilitation effect. In Group P, there was a retention loss of the nonreversed task as a result of overtraining, suggesting the inter-(stimulus) dimension interaction.
Two experiments were conducted to clarify unaware subjects behavior using Taffel-type procedure. In Exp. I, unaware subjects showed significant increment in performance, using “I” as a criterion. Most of them were conscious of the contents of sentences, as was hypothesized. Unaware subjects giving no attention to reinforcing stimulus showed more performance than those giving attention. Cooperation to the experimenter with its explicit demand in the increment group was made through the awareness, which was not always necessary for the decrement group. It was concluded that the unaware subjects did not behave in compliance with the demand characteristics of the experimenter but the ego-centric characteristics of their own. In Exp. II, using the third pronoun in operant level, except “I”, as criteria, unaware subjects showed no increment. These results were discussed from the demand characteristics viewpoint.
Information-dependent features of memory retrieval processes were investigated concerning the effects of the last item processed prior to the presentation of the probe on the item recognition tasks. In Exp. I, subjects rehearsed the memory list cyclically until the probe was presented. In Exp. II, they were asked to decide whether or not two adjacent probes presented at variable intervals belonged to the memory list. The results indicate that the mean RT for positive responses is a function of the distance between the probe and the last processed item. The present data suggest that the last processed item may be used as a piece of information for the selection of the appropriate probe-encoding strategy, and also that the comparison stage may be parallel in its operation.
260 children of four age groups (their mean ages were 3:10 for Group 1, 4:10 for Group 2, 5:11 for Group 3, 7:0 for Group 4, respectively) were given the equivalence or the distinctiveness pretraining either with or without verbal labels of their conceptual categories, or the no training control. Then they were given a conceptual sorting task which required them to sort the same instances as used in pretraining on the basis of their conceptual categories. The Group 1 and the Group 4 children could take no advantage of the pretraining treatments. The equivalence pretraining was effective for the Group 2 children and labeling facilitated the learning of the conceptual sorting task for the Group 3 children. These results were argued in terms of the subjects' ability to use equivalence and labels as a mediator to learn the sorting task.
Using modulo-2 (exclusive-OR) feedback logic with ten bit of serially connected shiftregisters, an inexpensive pseudo-random pulse generator can easily be made. A simple logic circuit generates a series of pseudo-random pulses in which both duration and interstimulus-interval could be randomly varied. The logic setup has 210-1 maximal cycle length which involves general purpose application for perceptual as well as vigilance experiments.