To investigate the covert behavior performed by retardates during the warning intervals of simple RT task, cue stimuli consisting of a combination of the mode of the temporal presentation (regular vs. irregular) and the mode of spatial presentation (regular vs. irregular), were introduced in the warning interval. Retarded and normal children performed under these conditions. For retardates the spatial regularity was more effective than the temporal regularity. For normals there was little RT difference among the four experimental conditions. Retardates had minimized RT under the condition in which the cue stimuli were presented regularly in the spatial order. These results suggested the difference in the covert behavior performed by retardates and normals.
Ninety-six preschool children were given a non-dimensional reversal (RS)/half-reversal (HRS) task with (a) criterion training (8 successive correct responses), (b) 16 overtraining, and (c) 32 overtraining. RS became easier with overtraining, and the facilitation of HRS by overtraining was not significant. The subproblem analysis during shifts indicated that under the 32 overtraining subjects learned the pairs dependently as instances of a single problem. These results were interpreted in terms of learning mechanisms which rely on an increase in shift discriminability during overtraining and an extraexperimental “doing the opposite” strategy.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the relationship between the effects of vicarious reward and a model's verbalization of the cues guiding an observer's future imitative behavior (in Exp. I) and the relationship between concept-identification task conditions for a model and an observer (in Exp. II). The main results were as follows: (a) Consistent with the hypothesis, vicarious reward was not always necessary for facilitating subsequent problem-solving, but the facilitation was possible in some conditions by heightening the observer's attention to modeling and associated situational cues. (b) The hypothesis that an observer acquires a more generalized “rule” was almost supported. An analysis of response patterns was discussed with relation to multiprocess in the observational learning theory.
This paper aims to investigate the common changes observed in serial performance irrespective of any stressors experimentally prepared, examining the relations between common changes under stress and personal types of performance. Sixty-six students served as subjects. Measurements of serial reaction time, variance in speed of performance, blockings, corrections, errors, omissions and repetitions were made on simple color naming (experimentally non-stress), competitive color naming (stressor, incongruent stimuli) and high-speed color naming (stressor, controlled high-speed). The results showed that stressors of different kinds induced common changes and the indices of stress implied magnified features of personal types of performance. These findings were discussed in terms of Selye's theory of stress.
We have developed a new method (method of incessant categorical judgments) in order to see the instantaneous impression of level-fluctuating sound. In this study category judgments using this new method were examined in comparison with conventional category judgments. The subject continuously judged the loudness of level-fluctuating sound by pressing the button corresponding to each category. Results showed anchor effect, context effect, range effect and the effect of stimulus distribution.
Sixteen rats were trained in a two-lever box, normally with one lever available at a time. Two levers differed in the reinforcement schedule (random vs. singlealternating sequences) and the subjects were trained for 29 days with successive two blocks of 17 trials on each lever. Prior to the daily training a lever-choice test trial was performed twice. In extinction, rats were extinguished either on formerly randomor alternating-sequence lever. At the end of acquisition, an appreciable preference for the random-sequence lever was observed. Rats also showed a clear patterning on the alternating-sequence lever, responding significantly faster on the reinforced than on the non-reinforced trials. However, no difference was observed during extinction between groups of rats extinguished on a lever of different sequence.
To investigate the test-retest effects in university students, the Y-G Personality Inventory was administered twice with an interval of one week. The results show that the test-retest effects generally took place, but the magnitude of the effects was less in university students than in elementary and junior high school pupils in the previous study. An other purpose was to see if the test-retest effects of a test on a similar test would occur. For this purpose, subjects responded to spilt-half items in the Maudsley Personality Inventory the first time. After a week or a month, the complete Inventory was administered to the same subjects. But the test-retest effects of the L scale were not clear.