The effects of vicarious reinforcement (VR) and the characteristics of task on children's observational learning were examined. Two tasks involving a multiple-item list in which each item consisted of a pair of pictures were given to the subjects. In one-category condition, the model consistently chose the instances of either animal or food, while in two-category condition, the model chose exclusively the instances of animal and food. The model was either positively reinforced or not entirely reinforced. The observers were examined on their spontaneous imitative performance and the recall of their observation on models. Performance scores indicated that the observers in one-category condition were not influenced by VR; while those in two-category condition were enhanced by VR with their imitative responses. These results were discussed in terms of the hypothesis of the informational analysis.
To investigate the hypothesis that the Japanese people attach the meaning to Kanji or Chinese characters at the first glance not by Ondoku (Chinese reading) but by Kundoku (Japanese reading), a series of Kanji were presented to subjects using the incidental learning paradigm in such a way that the effects of three variables upon the information processing of Kanji could be adequately analyzed. The three variables were the probability of relative appearance (PRA) of Ondoku, the type of presentation and the type of reading. The results were interpreted as supporting the above hypothesis and further suggesting the possibility that subjects translated Kundoku to Ondoku when they were required to pronounce in Ondoku.
Eighty kindergarten children were trained in an oddity problem where perceptual or conceptual attribute was to be a relevant cue, 30 trials being given each child. After the initial learning, subjects were randomly assigned to either intradimensional (ID) or extradimensional (ED) oddity shift. The performance in perceptual oddity learning was inferior to that in conceptual oddity learning. The ID shift score was higher than the ED one, but both scores were influenced by the nature of relevant stimulus attributes. As the proportion of oddity strategy in comparatively higher consistency skill increased with trials, other strategies proportionately decreased. Most of subjects demonstrated stimulus perseveration in the trial block just before using oddity strategy. From these results, it was suggested that subjects might select and test various problem-solving hypotheses before they were convinced of a relevant strategy.
To examine Imai's theory which predicts the pattern goodness changing systematically depending upon intra-configurational transformation structures, 30 subjects were required to make goodness judgments for 192 stimuli, each consisting of five solid circlets in a 3×3 matrix with or without four open circlets in complementary cells and/or lines of demarcation. Mean goodness ratings supported the theory to some extent, but a few fundamental difficulties remained; that is, the theory must be refined to explain the differences observed among different types in the unitary transformation structure and among patterns in the same transformation type, and also the individual differences such as the transformation structures functioning in the opposite direction in performing the cognitive judgment of patterns.
The present experiment was designed to determine the effect of hippocampal lesions on punishment training and to evaluate the spatial cognition hypothesis. Hippocampectomized and operated control rats were each divided into runway and goal box punishment groups. Food motivated animals were tested in the elevated straight alley on 10 acquisition days and 1 punishment day. Start box latency, runway running time, goal box entry time and goal box time were measured. The controls spent longer time in all measures on the postshock trial. The hippocampals showed no hesitation in the start box latency on the postshock trial, but they spent longer time in other measures. The location of punishment had significant effects only on the start box latency of the controls. These results support the spatial cognition hypothesis.
To examine the learning modes of preschoolers and second graders, 81 subjects were given consecutively four series of intradimensional-shift using a single stimulus-pair in each series. Irrelevant dimension-values were varied from that of original learning and from series to series with the relevant dimension always being constant. The second graders showed very high correct percentages on the first trial in all series, which suggests that learning was due to dependent learning mode by dimension-reward. Preschoolers had fairly high correct percentages on the first trial in both the first and the second series. This suggests that there are not only independent-learners (IL) but also dependent-learners (DL), among the preschoolers. A transitional stage from IL to DL was also found.
The present study attempted to determine how the verbal and imagery coding strategies interact with stimulus characteristics (association value and complexity) to enhance recognition. Fifteen undergraduates at each of three coding groups successively performed in four kinds of learning and recognition trials. The result showed that the verbal and imagery coding strategies enhanced recognition under all the conditions of stimulus characteristics, and the verbal coding strategy had the greater effect than imagery one except for the shapes of high-complexity and low-association values.
In order to study the factor structure of emotional words in Japanese, we collected 14, 877 words about human behavior from which 543 words used in everyday life to express emotion were selected. These words were then analyzed by Q-mode factor analysis technique and five bipolar factors and three monopolar factors were found. These factors were interpreted using Plutchik's (1966) emotion theory of prototypic behaviors.