To test whether the equal brightness contour at supra-threshold runs parallel with the contour at threshold, magnitude estimation and the staircase procedure were employed for estimating brightness power function under dark- and light-adaptation. The luminance was changed from 43 to 83 dB re 10-6 cd/m2 with the light adapting luminance at 53 dB. The retinal loci tested were 0° to 70° periphery in steps of 10°. The exponent of the power function gradually increased from .37 to .73 as eccentricity and adapting luminance increased. The equal brightness contour decreased for dark-adaptation and increased for light-adaptation as eccentricity increased at supra-threshold but at threshold did not follow the parallel hypothesis for both adapting conditions.
In the previous studies of Hypothesis theory, the subjects were given the set of hypotheses relevant to the task. The present study was designed to examine whether the subject uses the hypothesis or not without any instruction as to the task structure, and if so, to investigate what kinds of hypotheses he codes spontanously at the outset of the task. Significant results were as follows. (a) All subjects formulated the hypotheses without any instruction. (b) Conceptual rules tended to be coded in the order of simple concepts, conjunctive concepts with two attributes and conjunctive concepts with three attributes. (c) The concepts belonging to the same conceptual rule were coded successively.
In this paper, the mechanism of occurrence of blocking was investigated by examining such items of blocking in serial performance as frequency, occurring position, positional relation to other observations and periodical reaction time delay. One-hundred and eleven students served as subjects. Several measurements were taken in simple color naming (as a comparatively easy task) and competitive color naming (as a complicated task). The results showed; that (a) some blockings occurred even in the former task though fewer than the latter, (b) frequency increased in the later stage of performance, (c) positional relationship to error was observed, and (d) reaction time delay occurred periodically as every fifth or tenth naming. These findings apparently support the present viewpoint that blocking is the manifestation of a rather positive adjusting function.
The development of the relation between handedness and verbal self-regulation of behavior was investigated. Children in three age groups (mean ages 3:6, 5:6, 8:4) performed a two-choice button-pushing task with their dominant and non-dominant hands, respectively, in one of the five self-instruction conditions as follows: To say “Push!” overtly to the positive stimulus, to say “Don't push!” overtly to the negative stimulus, or to do the same covertly, or to respond in silence. There was a significant three-way interaction among the age, self-instruction condition, and handedness. The results generally support a hypothesis proposed by Luria.
Two groups of 12 rats each were trained on a brightness 70:30 problem with either guidance (G) or noncorrection (NC) procedure for 750 trials in a two-lever box. Percent choices of the majority stimulus was significantly higher for Group NC than for Group G. Of errors, responses to the minority stimulus, the percentage of those attributable to the Lose-stay response to position was significantly higher than chance level for Group G. Position perseveration was found to be stronger for Group G than for Group NC. These results seem to suggest that the relatively large number of errors made by Group G could largely be accounted for by its systematic responses to the irrelevant position cue.
Forty-eight kindergarten children observed a model choosing instances of animal and food for 20 pairs in a two choice discrimination task. The model was reinforced either categorically or randomly for half of the choices with either RW (Right-Wrong) or RN (Right-Nothing) combinations of reinforcement. The children in the RW group imitated the model's responses, receiving positive reinforcement more frequently than “Wrong” responses. In the RN condition, there was no significant effect of the reinforcement condition nor any significant difference between imitation for the model's “Right” and “Nothing” responses. These findings are discussed in terms of the discriminative function of vicarious reinforcement and children's cognitive mode for it.
Eight subjects were given overlearning of a pursuit tracking task twice which they experienced once either half or one year previously. Distributed practice was employed in the present experiments. Finger skin blood flow (SBF) and pulse rate (PR) were measured throughout the experiments. SBF was smaller during trials and during intertrial rests than during rest with eyes closed, but the difference between during trials and during intertrial rests was not significant. It was supposed that the reason for this effect of overlearning was that the increase in motivation resulted in a high level of activation during intertrial rests. The changing pattern of SBF during trials became similar to that in adding task of the previous study (1977) because of learning or habituation. In the second half of the trials, however, SBF during trials gradually became smaller.
With the use of power spectral analysis, the occipital and frontal EEGs in normal young subjects were examined during mental activity under closed-eye and open-eye conditions. Under the closed-eye condition, the peak of power spectral density in the alpha band was suppressed during mental activity, as compared with the finding obtained without mental loading. Moreover, the peak freugency of the alpha band shifted to higher frequencies under the mental loading condition in all of the subjects. Under the open-eye condition, alpha waves were prominently suppressed and no peak of power spectral density in the alpha band could be detected. However, during mental activity the peak of power spectral density could be detected in the delta wave band of both occipital and frontal EEGs.
These experiments were carried out to explore the effect of meaningfulness upon learning to read kanji and hiragana moji. The results of a retention test in Experiment I showed that the retention of kanji reading which is meaningful is better than hiragana moji which has no meaning. In Experiment II and III, it was indicated that individual hiragana moji was also learned easier when it was associated with a word (“sa” of “sakura” method). However, it was suggested that young children cannot learn the sound values of each hiragana moji by this method.