This paper aims to examine the limitation of visual dominance under a situation of conflict between the visual and tactile shape of an object. The subjects were presented with an object of which shape was made to appear different visually from its tactile shape by optical distortion. To change the degree of conflict, three reducing lenses of differing powers were used. After simultaneously grasping and viewing the standard object, the subjects were asked to choose a comparison object in accordance with their impression of the shape of the standard. The results showed that the degree of visual capture was limited. Using a lens that reduced the apparent visual image approximately 1/8, most subjects were aware of the conflict between the visual and tactile impressions.
Effectiveness of self-reinforcement in improving the performance of a motor task was examined in 77 college students. After a session of practice, visual and auditory cues for the performance were eliminated, and subjects were reinforced when they actually made a correct response (ER group), when they thought that they made a correct response (SR groups), or without any instruction (Control group). They were all allowed to make a practice in the presence of external feedback after every ten trials. There was a marked improvement in the performance of SR groups, as much as in the ER group; the number of correct responses increased and the response converged on a self-imposed standard. These effects were absent if the subjects were not allowed to make practice after every ten trials.
A hypothesis was tested that an affectionate bond with parents (parental affiliation) makes a child to take in the attitude and behavioral pattern of the parents (anaclitic identification). Eighty-five female students in a college and their parents were asked to answer a questionnair on value judgement, personality, and parental affiliation. The children had value system and personality similar to those of their parents as they perceived, rather than the actual parents themselves. There was a correlation between the degree of resemblance (between a child and the parents) and the degree of parental affiliation, partly supporting the hypothesis.
The present study was designed to examine the adequacy of dual coding hypothesis as an explanatory scheme for free recall in sentence memory and to explore the effects of imagery in STM and LTM. Two measures of recall (overall recall performance and recall frequency of elements of sentences) were considered in initial free recall (IFR) and final free recall (FFR) paradigms. Results were as follows: 1) Concrete sentences were recalled better than abstract sentences except the terminal sentence in IFR. 2) As to concrete sentences, “all-or-none” recall of the three elements (subject+object+predicate) was observed. However, such trend was not found in abstract sentences. The results were interpreted as suggesting that dual coding hypothesis was confirmable in sentence memory also and that imagery was more effective in LTM.
The effects of variations in intensity and color temperature of the illumination on artistic appreciation and aesthetic communication were studied. Aesthetic effects of the illumination were measured by having the subjects rate five abstract paintings on 30 semantic scales. The deviations and the correlation coefficients of scores on semantic scales between the artist and the subjects indicated the degree to which the artist communicated with the subjects. It appears that the greater the intensity, the more highly valued were the paintings. Aesthetic communication on Hedonic value was more accurate at high illumination levels than low. Color temperature had ambiguous effects on the whole, but had an effect on Warmth. Perhaps it is related to the color scheme of the paintings.