The present paper deals with the development of the simple-sentence processing in Japanese children. Subjects were 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds. Experiment I exemplified the hypothesis that in children's processing of the simple sentence there is some span with the phrase as a unit. This was found to develop in parallel with the increase of short-term memory span for words, being about one unit larger than the latter at all age levels. Although sentence length is dominant, structural differences in the sentence of the same length was found to have some effects on the processing in Experiment II. The sentence itself becomes a chunk as early as the age of three.
A word-association experiment in which the reaction time was controlled was performed to examine how the structure of association changes as a function of reaction time. The main results were as follows. (1) In the case of adjective stimuli, when the reaction time was short, most of the response words belonged to the same grammatical category as the stimulus words; the so-called paradigmatic associations were dominant. When the reaction time was long, the response words were predominantly those that could be syntactically combined with the stimulus words; the so-called syntagmatic associations were dominant. (2) In the case of noun stimuli, regardless of the length of reaction time, the response words were predominantly of the same grammatical category as the stimulus words. That is, the dominant mode of association for the nouns was not syntagmatic but always paradigmatic. The paradigmatic association for the nouns differed in its contents and functions from that for the adjectives.
The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental differences in the voluntary control of peripheral skin temperature. Ten eleven-year old boys and twelve adult university students were trained to produce a difference in skin temperature in one hand relative to the other in the direction prescribed by the experimenter. There were no differences in the way of producing temperature difference between children and adults. Both groups instructed to increase the opposite hand's skin temperature relative to the dominant hand showed better performance. The absolute change of skin temperature showed that the temperature difference was controlled mainly by the opposite hand. This fact suggests that there is a possibility of laterality in the peripheral vasomotor response.
This study examines the construct validity of the Rorschach Boundary Score as a projective method of measuring ego boundary. The Boundary Score is applied to 25 subjects of normal, neurotic and psychotic groups, and their scores are subjected to a qualitative analysis and their relations with clinical symptoms and R.P.R.S. are studied. The normal and the neurotic showed high barrier scores, and the psychotic showed high penetration scores. The result is that in the psychotic group the barrier score has a positive meaning and in the normal the penetration score has a positive meaning. It is suggested that both barrier and penetration scores have significance in characterizing the ego boundary of the three groups.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential usefulness of Carroll and Chang's INDSCAL model for the investigation of “implicit personality theories.” The results were: (a) The INDSCAL stimulus dimensions were closely comparable to those obtained by factor-analytic procedure; (b) individual differences in the salience of the dimensions of personality perception were highly related to perceiver's sex, personality variables, cognitive complexity, and structural indices illustrated by Cronbach (1958); and (c) individual differences mentioned above had significant effects on the way of forming impressions based upon several personality traits.
The relationship between moral development and role-taking opportunities (RTO) in adolescence was investigated. Subjects were classified into Kohlberg's Stage 3, 4 or 5 by Defining Issues Test. From the subjects' questionnaire responses to five social interaction situations, i.e., interpersonal interaction, group activity, voluntary social activity, contact with mass media, and contact with books three RTO scores were computed, which were assumed to correspond to the three stages. The results showed (a) that the higher the subject's stage, the more post participation in social interactions and (b) that a subject in a given stage had often participated in activities which offered many opportunities of role-taking needed in his stage.
This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of category on retrieval time by the “fixed method”. Five subjects learned a categorized list of 12 items, which was composed of three subgroups of items of Unit Size 2, 4 and 6 chosen from 3 taxonomic categories, and separately a non-categorized list of the same length. After list was throughly learned, subjects were asked to judge whether or not target items belonged to the memorized list. The RTs for categorized condition increased as functions of Unit Size, and were higher than those of non-categorized condition. The latter did not vary with Unit Size. Results were discussed in terms of Atkinson, Herrmann and Wescourt's Mathematical Recognition Model.