The present study was designed to examine whether levels of processing at input have an effect on context effects in recognition memory when the context is defined as the word paired with the to-be-remembered word. Levels of processing were manipulated by presentation rates (2sec vs. 4sec per pair) in Exp. I, and by orienting tasks (semantic vs. non-semantic) in Exp. II. Context effects were found irrespective of levels of processing in both experiments. It was suggested that context effects in the present experiments were caused by the difference in number of available retrieval cues between the unchanged and changed context conditions, not by the change of subjects' semantic interpretations of to-be-remembered words.
It was hypothesized that a hostile person would respond more readily to aggressive stimuli than to friendly ones delivered to him from other persons. Hostile and non-hostile subjects were selected from male college students based on the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Subjects were given opportunites to deliver electric shocks against their opponents (confederates) on trials competing for reaction time. Measures of their aggression were intensity, duration of shocks and their product. The results showed that non-hostile subjects responded aggressively to the aggressive opponent and friendlily to the friendly opponent, and that hostile subjects responded aggressively to the aggressive opponent without responding friendlily to the friendly opponent.
Four experiments were conducted to examine the transition of depth selection by mutual inhibition among disparities. (a) With random-dot stereograms, the time required for stereoscopic depth disappearance under fixation was found to be an inverse function of the magnitude of disparity. (b) Measurement of the cumulative time for perception of ambiguous stereograms showed that the depth was perceived longer with relatively smaller disparity. (c) The perception of stereoscopic depth under fixation was more stable in random-dot target than in ambiguous target. (d) Stereoscopic depth reversal occurred more frequently under fixation than in free observation. These results suggest that the whole range of disparities might be detected simultaneously and that the inhibition mechanism might have some important role in stereopsis.
The correspondence between sexual development (S-D) and targets of dependence in college students was examined. Two questionnaires were used to investigate their sexual attitudes, sexual development, and central targets of dependence. Main results were as follows: (a) Subjects higher in S-D were more open to such sexual matters as virginity; (b) the higher subjects were in S-D, the more likely they were to select their lovers as a central target of their dependence; and (c) there was a tendency, although not statistically significant, suggesting that the lower subjects were in S-D, the more likely they were to select their family and best friends as the target.
Hemisphere specialization for different levels of processing of visually presented Kanji letter with normal right-handed adults was investigated. A tendency toward left visual field superiority was found in the physical matching task and a significant right visual field superiority was found in the semantic congruency decision task. These results suggest that while in a lower level of processing single Kanji letters may be processed dominantly in the right hemisphere, in a higher level of thought processing of Kanji such as a semantic decision of the congruency with respect to the frame of reference, left hemisphere plays a superior functional role in processing.
It was hypothesized from the concept of identification that assimilative behavior takes place even in adults when the unconscious mechanism is dominant. The previous study had supported this hypothesis under the fear condition. The purpose of this study was to examine if assimilative behavior also takes place under the distraction condition. An elevator was used in the quasi-field, 2 (distraction)×2 (stooge's behavior) experiment. The dependent variable was the number of subjects who got off the elevator. The results showed that unitentional following behavior occurred under distraction. It was concluded that this finding supports the hypothesis.
Hippocampectomized rats were compared with the controls on punishment training in a L-shaped alley. Five measures of running time were taken; startbox latency A (from the placement in the startbox to the door), startbox latency B (from the door to the runway), runway running time, goalbox entry time and goalbox time. The postshock running time of controls was significantly longer than the preshock one in all measures. Hippocampals showed no hesitation in both startbox latencies, but did show hesitation in the other three measures just as the controls did. The controls spent a long time in the startbox from which they were unable to see outside stimuli until reaching the startbox door. These results support the spatial cognition theory of hippocampal function rather than the distant cue theory.
The so called click method was applied at different levels of speech processing. In Exp. I significantly more clicks which were superimposed on sentences were mislocated toward syntactic boundaries, and this phenomenon was observed to occur immediately after the presentation of stimuli. In Exp. II subjects were required to respond (a) immediately after they heard the click sound, (b) after the whole sentence was presented, (c) 15sec after the presentation of the sentence. Preliminary knowledge of sentences was also controlled. The results demonstrated that (1) syntactic boundary effect was irrelevant to S-R interval or to preliminary knowledge of background sentences, (2) when S-R interval became longer, backward mislocation toward a prior segment of the sentence increased. Some explanations of mislocation mechanism were briefly discussed.