Two experiments were performed to examine the retrieval process of memory by comparing recall performance with recognition performance under a variety of conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of intention of memorizing and depth of processing upon recall and recognition performance were examined. The results indicated that both intention of memorizing and depth of processing affected recall performance but only the intention of memorizing affected the recognition performance. In Experiment II, the effect of adequacy of processing upon the recall and recognition performance was examined. The results indicated that the adequacy of processing affected the recall performance but did not affect the recognition performance. These results were discussed in terms of activation model of memory.
In connection with the Kinsbourne's attention-model, the relation between the level of hemisphere sharing of loading task and the visual-laterality difference was examined under verbal loading conditions. The subjects were 13 (8male and 5 female) right-handed college students. The loading tasks in Exp. I were the “same-different” judgment of Japanese hiragana alphabets and of triliteral hiragana words, and “true-false” judgment of short statements. In Exp. II, a procedure to eliminate configurational matching of the letters was followed. The results of the two experiments suggest that the visual-laterality effect occurs only when the level of hemisphere sharing of the loading task exceeds a certain lower bound.
The effect of two short vertical lines on the apparent length of a horizontal line, which was inserted between those vertical lines, was measured by the magnitude estimation with calibration procedure. The experimental results show: (a) Effects of f (distance between vertical lines): The inverted U-shaped curve with maximum overestimetion at e/f=2/3, was found, where e indicates the length of the horizontal line. (b) g (gap between the vertical line and the horizontal line): The inverted U-shaped curve was found, too, when only one vertical line presented. But it's maximum point did not correspond to that in (a). (c) h (height of vertical lines): As h increased, the magnitude of overestimation decreased, generally. These results were discussed in relation to some other illusions.
To investigate features of the contralaterally associated-movements (AM) in connection with the main movements, 6-year-old children were asked to play “marbles” as the main movements, and both its performance and AM were checked. The first analysis indicated that AM contained two different movements, pre-associated-move-ments (PAM) and simultaneously associated-movements (SAM). PAM and SAM showed different features in relation to their directions, changes through trial blocks and right-left balances. When classified into three groups on the basis of their performance of the main movements, the subjects in the low group showed the maximum AM in both PAM and SAM. Furthermore, the kind of SAM patterns decreased in inverse proportion to performance level.
PTT and systolic blood pressure were measured 20 times at rest and 10 times with Valsalva's Maneuvre from each of five subjects. Linear correlation coefficients (LCs) were calculated from the data obtained only at rest and from both measuring conditions combined. The results showed that LCs from the combined data were highly negative (-0.425--0.854) in all five subjects but LCs from rest alone did not show any significant trend in three subjects. It was concluded that PTT did not highly correlate with arterial blood pressure within its spontaneous variation and, therefore, it called the utility of PTT as a target response in blood pressure biofeedback in question.
Dimensional dominance (either form or color) among retarded and normal children was assessed prior to their being presented with reversal or nonreversal shift task. During the initial learning, the dominant dimension was either relevant or irrelevant to the solution. Both rate of criterion attainment during the initial learning and subsequent shift performance were related to dimensional dominance. If the dominant dimension was relevant, the retarded learned the task as fast as the normal; if the dominant dimension was irrelevant, the retardates learned it with more difficulty than the normals. This result was discussed in relation to the tendency of the retardates' towards being bound to one dimension and no switching to an other.
Two experiments were designed to investigate a below-zero habituation of the skin resistance reflex (SRR) component of the orienting reflex to auditory stimuli. In both experiments, subjects were given additional ten stimulus-presentations immediately after initial habituation (extended habituation, EH procedure), and they were compared with those without EH procedure. Effects of EH procedure upon rehabituation and SRRs to novel stimuli (Experiment I), and upon SRRs to novel stimuli under an additional control condition (Experiment II), were examined. The EH procedure enhanced SRRs to novel stimuli and had no effects on the spontaneous recovery. These results suggested that habituation would not proceed beyond the zero-level by the EH procedure.
Forty-eight kindergarten children learned to play a lever pulling game and to donate reward (candy cards) won in the game to other children by means of observation of a model, direct instruction or model-observation plus direct instruction. They were then given a donating chance under presence and absence of another person. The fewest donation to other children occurred when the children performed after the direct instruction and under the absence. But it was not clear whether presence of another person reduced situational fear or worked as an external pressure in the children at their low levels of internalization.