The present study was designed to clarify the differences in defensive responses of repressors and sensitizers when they verbalized feelings of anxiety. Twenty university students were divided by Byrne's Repression-Sensitization Scale to ten repressors and ten sensitizers consisted of five males and five females each, and requested to judge of “like” or “dislike” to emotional and neutral words by non-verbal and verbal responses. The results were that repressors and sensitizers presented no difference in both non-verbal and verbal responses on reaction time, and that repressors showed significantly greater GSR magnitudes in both non-verbal and verbal responses than did sensitizers. It was partially supported that repressors failed to verbalize feelings of anxiety and sensitizers verbalized freely.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of expectations of future interaction (EFI) on reward allocations in dyads (Shapiro, 1975). Each subject divided the reward between herself and a confederate after they had made unequal work contributions. The partner of allocation was present in the same room in experiment I but not present in Experiment II. The result showed that EFI significantly affected the allocation under a high input condition in Experiment I but not in Experiment II. The results were discussed in terms of self-presentation of allocators.
Defining consonance as performing a task with exactly the same attitude as the subject's initial attitude, this experiment aimed to compare self-perception theory with cognitive dissonance theory in attitude change and attitude recall conditions by the forced compliance paradigm. The finding that there was neither attitude change nor recall error in the consonant subjects made it possible to compare the two theories without the theoretical difficulty of attitude change by consonant subjects reported in Shaffer's study. The results that the dissonant subjects did not differ from the consonant subjects in the evaluation of task interest and task importance were more consistent with self-perception theory, but were contrary to the prediction of dissonance theory that the dissonant subjects would show lower evaluation of both task interest and task importance. A possibility of integrating them by delimiting each theory's applicable range was suggested.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among the graphemic, phonemic, and semantic processings of Chinese characters (KANJI) in word recognition processes. The graphemical matching task, which was for subjects to decide whether paired stimuli presented serially are graphemically identical, was performed to 20 university students. Three factors, which might influence the reaction time in the matching task, were munipulated. They were interstimulus interval (200 ms and 2000 ms), word frequency (High and Low), and type (five conditions as to the relations of a stimulus pair in the three processings). The results were interpreted as suggesting that these three processings functioned in parallel and interactively, that they were carried out within 300 ms, and that the change of codes was not occurred within 2100 ms.
Sixty 4- and 6-year-old children observed a female model consistently choose the items of one category with either positive (PVR), negative (NVR), or no (NC) reinforcement for her choice responses. Following this, they were given a performance and an acquisition test. The results showed that while the older children imitated the model's response on the three vicarious reinforcement conditions differently, the younger children imitated the model to the same degree in PVR and NC conditions, which were both superior to NVR condition. The older children made significantly more matching responses to the model than the younger children in the PVR condition, but the reverse was true in the NVR condition. The results were discussed in terms of the developmental difference in the mode of processing information from vicarious reinforcement.
A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the hypotheses that a man of high status would conform to the group norm more strictly than a man of low status when the norm of group was percieved to facilitate the accomplishment of group tasks, and that a man of high status, on the other hand, would deviate more extremely from the group norm than a man of low status when the norm was percieved to be detrimental to the accomplishment of group tasks. Results confirmed these hypotheses and suggested that the conforming/deviant behavior needs to be considered in terms of the conflict involved in group processes between adaptation to the task environment and adaptation to interpersonal problems.
An acquired-drive paradigm was employed. Seventy-two rats were divided into three groups with respect to the differences in treatment during ITIs in classical fear conditioning; rats of Group D were detained in shock compartment, rats of Group H were removed from the shock compartment but immediately returned to it, and rats of Group R were removed from the shock compartment and placed in the retaining box having different background and size. Group R learned a hurdle-jump response to escape a Tone-CS less than did Group D and H, while the difference between Group D and Group H was not significant. It was suggested that the infereior performance of Group R might have been due to the effect of placing the subjects in the retaining box different from the shock compartment during ITIs.
To examine whether the ability to control impulsive response differs by age or intelligence of impulsive children, the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) test was administered under the instructions emphasizing the reflective responding to high- and low-IQ groups of impulsive fourth-graders and to a group of impulsive first-graders. In the high-IQ group of fourth-graders errors on MFF significantly decreased and latency time significantly increased in accordance with the direction of the instructions, while in the low-IQ group errors significantly decreased without showing increase in latency time. Among the first-graders, neither errors nor latency time changed. It can be said that older impulsive children can control their impulsive response toward the reflective direction, even in the absence of prior training.