Children of second and fifth grades and undergraduate students were asked to encode verbally each of 16 figures under two of the following three instructions: social-communicative, self-memorial, and associative. Two weeks later, they attemped to match their own codes and those of other subjects with the correct figures. In the second grade subjects no significant difference was found in communicability of codes under the three conditions. In the fifth grade subjects social-communicative codes were more communicative to others than self-memorial or associative ones. In the case of the undergraduates the order of communicability was social-communicative, self-memorial and associative. Differences in content and mode of encoding under the social-communicative, self-memorial and associative conditions were also analyzed.
Fifty college students learned a miniature artificial language under five different conditions: In the control condition subjects were presented 80 sample sentences with their referents four times and required to learn the correspondence between the words and the referents and infer the grammatical structure of the language. In four experimental conditions, the same procedures were used except that either 16 or 32 grammatical mistakes (GM-16, GM-32) or 16 or 32 referential mistakes (RM-16, RM-32) were inserted in these 80 sample sentences. The results showed that even under the GM-16, RM-16, and RM-32 conditions some subjects could acquire the language much as the subjects under the control condition. These results were discussed from the viewpoint of child language acquisition.
An original stimulus (OS) containing three letters in a three by three matrix was briefly presented and followed, after various interstimulus intervals (ISIs), by an interpolated stimulus (IS) containing mask patterns. The exposure of IS impaired severely both position and identity recalls when ISIs were shorter than 20 ms. At longer ISIs, mere exposure of IS did not impair recall of OS, but, if the subjects were asked to make the recall, recognition, or reversal recall of IS before the recall of OS, these tasks caused the selective loss of position information of OS. The results suggested that visual backward masking originates in iconic storage, and visual retroactive interference originates in retrieval process from the visual short-term store.
Each of 40 pairs of second, fourth, and sixth graders participated (as performers and observers) in a central-incidental recall task. Half of the performers were as-signed to a verbal reinforcement (R) condition, and the remaining half of the performers were not (NR condition). The effect of performer's performance on the observer was minimized by the reexposure of the task. The central recall scores of observers and performers improved with age, and observers remembered the correct responses as well as performers. Vicarious reinforcement had a significant effect on the central score only at the second grade level. Comparisons revealed no significant differences among grade levels in the R-NR condition and P-O conditions on the incidental score. The proportions of the subjects who had more central recall than incidental recall improved with age.
The present study was designed to explore the factor affecting the resolution of CNV by using the paradigm in which the attention was experimentally manipulated. The control group (N=13) was given an instruction for conducting the ordinary CNV task, while the experimental group (N=26) was instructed to direct the attention to the different S2 durations. The results obtained showed that in the control group the CNV resolution occurred after the S2 onset, although in the experimental group the resolution occurred after the S2 offset. Considering the findings of this study and of Kakigi, Matsuda, and Hagino (1978) together, it was suggested that the CNV resolution was initiated by the psychological factor, not depending upon the external stimulus nor the key pressing response.
This experiment aimed at to analyse the effects of “arousal” on both performance level and physiological index during human rote learning with a premise that white-noise and task-difficulty would serve as “physical” and “cognitive” arousers respectively, Forty subjects wete randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups varying on 2 noise levels and 2 task difficulties. Results obtained were as follows. First, there was a trend of interaction between the physical and cognitive arousers, i.e., the administration of white-noise increased the performance level under the easy task conditions while it decreased under the difficult conditions. Secondly, the heart rate increased during the rote learning, reflecting its highest arousal level at the recall periods.
This experiment was designed to examine the minimal redundancy hypothesis proposed by Olson, end further to decide the limit of the hypothesis. The experiment was run in a two-person communication situation. The task was for a sender of message to describe the referent so that the receiver could select it among figures in a stimulus-set. The results were: (1) Overall redundancy was considerably low. (2) Subsidiary information decreased the redundancy of message. (3) The less was the number of figures in a set, the less was the redundancy of message. These results were interpreted as evidence that suggests the necessity of cognitive factors in order to establish the generality of Olson's hypothesis.