To investigate the Hayashibe's finding on the four stages of development of perceptual strategy in sentence comprehension, two experiments were conducted. In Exp. I the card-choosing technique and NP+V sentences were used. In Exp. II the acting-out technique and NP+NP+V sentences were used. The main results were as follows: (a) Postposition strategy began to be used at the age of about four; (b) before postposition strategy there was a period of word-order strategy. The latter strategy, however, is insufficient because it can not explain the results for one-noun sentences in Exp. I. Therefore, a new complementary strategy (case strategy) was proposed.
Eighty-eight children (kindergartners, second- and sixth-graders) were successively given three (Memory, Inference and Comparison) tasks, and their eye-movements were recorded. In Inference task, subjects were asked to draw an affirmative, partially negative, and negative inference from two lines of figure series which were divided into an upper-set (yellow-cross and green-triangle) and a lower-set (green-triangle and green-cross). It was found that, whereas second-graders began to show the different way of scanning from kindergartners during Inference task, scanning by peripheral vision appeared only for sixth-graders, and a difference has been shown between pattern of eye-movements to correct and wrong answers in those two elder groups, but no such difference was obtained in kindergartners.
The effects of different disparities on the global stereopsis were examined by measuring the cumulative time of stereopsis as an index, using 13 complex ambiguous stereograms. It was found that the difficulty for stereopsis increased, (a) as the number of boundaries between different disparities increased, (b) as the spatial separation between the boundaries decreased, or (c) as the difference between the two disparities increased. These effects were also studied in relation to other factors such as noise and magnitude of disparity which might also be important for global stereopsis.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the retrieval attributes which were generally assumed to influence performances on recall and recognition memory. The 142 undergraduate students were tested for two sessions over a week and 11 different tests were employed as retrieval measures. The results showed that the reliability estimates of the 11 variables were high and most of them were intercor-related. When the principal factor analysis and the Varimax method were computed upon the correlation matrix of the 11 variables, two factors emerged. One factor was associated with the retrieval attribute relating to performance on tests of the explicit targets and the other factor to performance in generating the targets implicitly. These results cast doubts on the earlier theories of recall and recognition memory.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the similarity structure of the schematic faces yielded by multidimensional scaling and the classification RTs. By manipulating the distribution of three attribute values, two sets of stimuli which differed in category discriminability were produced. Following the classification learning trials, subjects were asked to classify the stimuli into two classes as fast as possible. The classification RTs were highly correlated with the coordinates of dimension one of the similarity structure regardless of the category discriminability, and the correlation coefficient exceeded those between the classification RTs and any attribute value. The evidence suggests that the overall similarity relationships among stimuli are important factors in classifying stimuli, such as schematic faces.
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of diffusion of responsibility on helping behavior in a non-emergency situation, and to investigate this effect in the bystanders' face-to-face (FF) and non-face-to-face (NFF) conditions. The proportion and the latency of helping were employed as the measures of helping behavior. The results showed that the proportion of helping did not decrease with the increase of the bystander group size. Especially, in the two-bystander-FF condition, facilitation of helping was observed on the contrary to the hypothesis about diffusion of responsibility. From these findings, it was suggested that diffusion of responsibility would be inhibited by the joint effect of the relative intensity of the psychological costs of helping and the difference in the bystanders' face-to-face rleations.
The purpose of this study was to construct a measuring scale of the self-concept, and to investigate developmental tendencies of self-concepts in adolescents. Based upon the results of factor analyses of ratings of self-descriptive-items by 317 adolescent students, a measuring scale consisting of six subscales (i.e., antisocialness, activeness, neatness-cleanliness, cheerfulness-friendliness, emotionality, and sincerity) was constructed, and was applied to 1055 junior high, senior high and college students. Some of the results obtained were: (a) regardless of age and sex self-concept of the adolescent was cheerful-friendly, sincere, and not antisocial, (b) in the male subjects, the degree of emotionality and sincerity showed increasing tendencies through junior high, senior high and college levels, while the female subjects showed an increase only in sincerity.
Five-year-old children were tested in a serial position recall task under one of the three stimulus presentation conditions: visual, auditory and visual presentation with labeling. The modality of recall cue was either visual or auditory within a condition. Overt labeling produced both primacy and recency effects. A greater recency effect was obtained with auditory stimuli although recency effects were found for both visual and auditory stimuli. The modality of recall cue had no influence on either overall recall performance or on the shape of the serial position curve. The results indicated that preschoolers did not spontaneously label and rehearse the stimuli.
The present study was conducted to investigate the distinction between forward and backward context effects. Two stimulus continua of synthetic vowels, one being phonetic (/u/vs./a/) and the other being non-phonetic (high vs. low in pitch), were adopted for comparison. The magnitude of the context effect was expressed by the amount of shift of boundaries in the categorical judgment for the target stimulus incurred by the context. The results indicated that the relation between forward and backward context effects in phonetic judgment is quite different from that in non-phonetic judgment. A model of the information-processing stages is presented to account for the results.
To examine whether the basal skin potential levels (BSPL) obtained from habituated and relaxed subjects are determined by a relationship between the electrode electrolyte concentration and the individual values of body fluid electrolyte, the skin potential level (SPL) and reflex (SPR) were measured with 0.06mol NaCl agar and 0.03mol KCl agar as the electrode electrolytes. These electrolyte concentrations were determined in consideration of sodium and potassium concentrations in the palmar tissue. The results showed that under two electrolytes there were no significant differences in relation to SPL and SPR except for the number of SPRs. Therefore, our results support the views on the BSPL mechanism suggested by Christie and Venables (1971a).