This study examines the development of language and class concepts in the task in which the subject selects ones that are the same as or different from two objects. In Experiment I, subjects were 4-, 5- and 6-year-olds. The “similarity-to-(or difference-from-) one” responses were possible from five years old. The “juxtaposition” and “similarity-to-(or difference-from-) two” increased with the age but the latter was difficult. In Experiment II, subjects were 7-, 8- and 9-year-olds. The “one-dimensional similarity-to-two” was possible from seven, the “one-dimensional difference-from-two” at eight, and the “two-dimensional difference-from-two” at about nine. These developmental trends toward considering two objects or two dimensions of two objects simultaneously represent “multi-dimensionalization”, which is also represented in the Class Negation Task and the Equivalence Task.
To examine the underlying processes in the order judgments of Japanese syllabary, two experiments were conducted. In both experiments, subjects indicated by a binary motor response whether a pair of syllables were in proper order or not. In Experiment I syllables were paired in each row, and in Experiment II they were paired in each column of Japanese syllabary. Time to make such judgments was shorter for greater separation between two syllables (with the exception of Experiment I), and shorter for syllable pairs in proper order than for reversed order pairs. And depending on the conditions, serial position effect (SPE) showed varieties of patterns such as bowed SPE, monotonically increasing SPE, and disappearance of bowed SPE.
To investigate the factors determining the types of metacontrast masking function, masking functions were examined by varying either luminance or duration of mask stimulus (MS) under monoptic and dichoptic observations. Under dichoptic-variable luminance condition, U-shaped functions were obtained regardless of the MS luminance, but monotonic ones were found under monoptic with very high luminance. Under both observations with the variable duration condition, function changed from U-shaped to monotonic as the MS duration increased. Furthermore, when the test stimulus (TS) energy was equal to that of the MS, a long MS duration yielded a function close to monotonic one. It was suggested that types of metacontrast function might be determined by the MS duration and the duration ratio of TS to MS, not by the energy ratio.
The main purpose of this study was to compare the reading processes of Kanji with those of Kana script. The hypotheses upon which these Exps. were based are as follows: the meaning of both Kanji and Kana script are extracted by both data-driven and conceptually-driven processing. In the reading of Kanji, however, their pronunciations seem to be generated on the basis of their meaning. On the other hand, while the reading of a sequence of Kana script seems to be generated on the basis of meaning as with Kanji, it is directly constructed from data-driven processing since forty-six syllabics correspond to forty-six phonetic units. Subjects were required to read Kanji or Kana script as fast as they could. The results of these Exps. seem to support the above hypotheses.
Functional hemispheric differences were investigated from the point of modes of information processing. The subject's task was to judge a set of stimulus letters same (all are identical) or different (one item differs from the rest). The set was consisted of letters of alphabet or Japanese character (Kana and Kanji), which number varied from two to five. The reaction time was recorded and plotted as a function of the number of letters in the set. When the task was name or upright matching of alphabet or Kana, RT was increased linearly for both hemispheres, suggesting serial processing. On the other hand, in the case of inverted matching of all stimuli and upright matching of Kanji, RT showed no increase as in parallel processing.
This study was undertaken to investigate whether or not translation takes place in cross-modal matching (CMM) by using the measure of reaction time (RT). In Experiment I, differences in RTs between CMM and intramodal matching (IMM) at three levels of ISI were examined when both modalities of the first and the second stimulus were fixed. In Experiment II, the modality of the second stimulus was uncertain. In the fixed condition, the RTs of two CMMs were slower than that of two IMMs at the short ISI condition but not at the long ISI condition. In the uncertain condition, differences in RTs between CMM and IMM were partially found at the long ISI condition. These results indicate that the translation process exists in CMM.
A new method was developed to detect the reinforcing effect of visual stimulus presentation (color photo or light) on the lever-pressing behavior of infant Japanese monkeys. In this experiment, each 1-hr session was devided into two alternating periods. During one period (presentation period), if the subject pressed the lever a visual stimulus resulted, but during the other period (non-presentation period), pressing the lever did not result in a visual stimulus. The duration of a visual stimulus presented was dependent on the duration of lever-pressing. The relative time allocation to lever-pressing was greater during the presentation period than during the non-presentation period although total response rate varied between sessions. This method makes it possible to detect such a weak reinforcing effect as of sensory stimuli which previous methods have failed to detect.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of control on systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate. Variables included cold pressor and surgical film as uncontrollable stressors and reaction time to avoid aversive stimulation. Diastolic blood pressure was more elevated during cold pressor, while systolic elevations were not significantly differentiated between cold pressor and reaction time task. Heart rate was kept considerably lower during surgical film. The relationship between Type A and Type B behavior patterns and the stress condition was examined on cardiovascular measures. The results revealed no differences between Type A and Type B subjects.