Problem: Plastics Rorschach Stimuli (PRS) were produced through the same randamization procedure as the Rorschach figures. Ego functions of the blind may be studied by the use of PRS to which even the complete blind can respond. Method: Subjects of normal visual acuity are 39 (22 males) and blind subjects 24 (20 males). Results: Differences between the eye mask condition and visual condition and between the group of normal visual acuity and the group of the blind were studied. These two results were compared with each other. Conclusions: PRS is one of the useful means to study the blind's ego functions as well as the roles of dermal sensation and visual perception in ego functions in general.
A total of 43 female mice of different strains (AKR/J, BALB/c, C3H/He, C57BL/6, DBA/2J, and ICR/JCL) were tested four times in the virgin period (two times each in estrous and non-estrous stages), three times in the pregnant period, nine times in the lactating period, and once on the next day of weaning. On each test, a male ICR/JCL mouse was introduced into the female's home cage and the social interaction between them was observed for 10min. Darting, Chasing, Attack, Biting, Wrestling, and Boxing were checked as the female's aggressive behavior. It was found that (1) females exhibited very little aggressive behavior in the virgin period in both estrous and non-estrous stages, (2) females of several strains showed intense aggressive behavior in pregnancy, (3) during the early lactating period, females were most aggressive, and thereafter the amount of aggressive behavior gradually declined, and (4) on the next day of weaning, no females exhibited gressive behavior. The behavioral pattern of aggression was very different among the strains, even though they displayed about the same level of aggression.
In a selective attention task requiring target detection responses, 12 subjects listened to a random sequence of high and low tone pips presented in three modes: (a) fixed, (b) moving, and (c) random in perceived location between the two ears. In all modes a negative shift superimposed on the N1 and P2 components was observed in the event-related potentials (ERPs) to the attended tones. In the random mode, however, such a negative shift was reduced in parallel with a decline in target defections. The results were interpreted as showing human ability to attend selectively to a moving sound source, and suggesting the ERP negativity to be a sensitive index of selective information processing.
“The object concept” in Japanese monkeys was investigated with a heterogeneous matching-to-sample task. First, it was confirmed that naive Japanese monkeys were able to learn this original task. Then, the transfer tests were carried out with the comparison stimuli modified with respect to four dimensions: size, background, rotation, and shape. The early low and later high accuracies during the test sessions suggested that some common properties of the modified stimuli came to control subjects' responding. Thus, the formation of “the object concept” in Japanese monkeys was demonstrated experimentally. It was concluded that reinforcement of the same responses under several different stimuli which shared some common properties was necessary before the subjects formed “the object concept”.
Based on the responses of the householders to the “Social Stress Scale”, we intended to analyse and compare stress-patterns between “Kaso (thinly-populated)” and urban communities. We obtained 28 core-profiles, by factor-analysing the scale, calculating “factor-item-scores” for each subject, and adopting cluster analysis, Further, we found 9 types finally by reducing the number of these core-profiles by the Hayashi's III. Five (low-stress, high-stress-for-institutional-systems, high-stress, high-stress-in-vocation-and-business, and high-stress-for-dwelling-circumstances), out of the nine, were extracted from the “Kaso”, and three (low-stress, high-stress-for-institutional-system, and high-stress-in-vocation-and-business) from the urban, and the rest (high-stress-for-educational-and-cultural-facilities) was related to both “Kaso” and urban. The description of each type by the representative cases revealed the progress of urbanization and complexities in the “Kaso” community. Methodological problems were also discussed.
To investigate the temporal course of the frequency characteristics of the response elicited in the auditory system, pure-tone masking patterns were obtained at several time positions relative to the onset or the offset of the masker. The simultaneous masking patterns obtained suggest that the shape of the response distribution remained almost unchanged during the masker, although they are less informative compared to the other conditions because of interaction effects between the masker and the probe. The forward masking data illustrate the decay course of the distribution and are believed to give more reliable informations as to the frequency selectivity of the auditory system. The backward masking data, however, fail to give any tenable suggestions. The phenomenon of the shift in the maximum-masking-frequency was observed in all conditions and its underlying mechanisms were discussed.
The purpose of this study was: (a) to compare individual decision with group decision on reward allocation and (b) to compare pairs of strangers (Exp. I) with pairs of friends (Exp. II). In both experiments, 38 female undergraduates performed tasks in pairs and received a monetary reward for their performances. At first, the subjects individually decided how to allocate the joint reward (individual decision), and afterwards they decided by mutual agreement (group decision). The main measure used was the manner of allocation. Main results were: (a) at the individual decision level, high input subjects used equality allocation and low input subjects used equity allocation in both experiments; and (b) at the group decision level, pairs of strangers (Exp. I) reached an agreement in equity allocation, and pairs of friends (Exp. II) in equality allocation. These results were discussed in terms of the subjects' motivation in the reward allocation situation.
Effect of various kinds of trainings on the discrimination learning in which the preferred dimension was irrelevant were assessed in retarded and normal children. In the normals, the effects of the attempts which were designed to direct subject's attention at the relevant dimension before the discrimination learning were found, but not in the retardates. In the retardates who prefer forms to colors but not in those who prefer colors to forms, however, the effects of the attempts during the discrimination learning were found. The result was discussed in relation to the retardates' difficulty of switching their attention to nonpreferred dimension and to their short-term memory deficit.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of differences in sex and dominance on personal space. Fourty male and 40 female students were divided into high- and low-dominant groups and assigned to a male or female approaching person. Interpersonal distance between a subject and the approaching person was measured at eight orientations around the subject's body. It was found that interpersonal distance decreased as the bodily orientation shifted from the front to the rear. Also, males personal space was greater than females. Finally, the effect of dominance was not found except for two interactional effects.
Subjects studied successively six lists of 20 nouns, and were tested for immediate or delayed recall in each interlist interval followed by a final free recall test for all lists. During study trials subjects were required to perform decision tasks designed to orient them to semantic, acoustic or graphemic characteristics of the list items. The results indicated the superiority of semantic encoding over acoustic or graphemic encoding in three recall tests except for the recall from recency portion in immediate recall test.