In order to investigate the residual tension of muscle in cerebral palsied (CP) children (adults) and the effect of EMG feedback on its relaxation processes, 5 normal children and 15 CP children, including one adult, were asked to flex their elbows gradually, then increase the tension with full flexion, and finally relax as quickly as possible under three conditions: pre-feedback, feedback, and post-feedback. Under the feedback condition, a meter display was provided. Results were as follows: (1) All except one in the CP group showed more residual tension than the normals at the pre-feedback condition. (2) Under the feedback condition, the time to relax was shortened significantly in the CP group. (3) The CPs could be classified into following four types by the influence of EMG feedback. (a) Type A (N=2) showed no change. (b) Type B (N=9) improved. (c) Type C (N=1) improved in the latter half of the feedback condition, though it increased tension in the first half. (d) Type D (N=2) increased conversely under the feedback condition.
The “same-different” judgment process was investigated using the color and form multidimensional stimuli. “Same-different” reaction time paradigm was employed in which the stimulus was sequentially presented. Exp. I was designed to clarify the processing mechanism of the “different” judgment. The results suggested that the “different” response was initiated by the processing of each dimension. In Exp. II, the dimensions of the first stimulus were separated and sequentially presented. It was found that the RT for the separated presentation was shorter than that for the composed presentation in Exp. I. The results suggested that the hypothesis of parallel matching based on dimensions was enough to explain the RT of the “same” response. Based on the results of Exp. I and Exp. II, the sequential-dual process model was proposed.
The purpose of this study was to classify and characterize hesitation phenomena in Japanese speech. Twenty college students were asked to make a story about a series of pictures. The types of hesitation which were also found in English speech were identified in the stories. Then they were analyzed further in terms of the kinds of lexical unit and the location in a sentence. The major results were as follows: (a) repetitions and false starts occurred at nouns more frequently than at the members of Jodoshi-Joshirui (one of functional word classes) and (b) significantly larger parts of both filled and unfilled pauses were located between phrases than within them. Finally, functional role of each type in speech production was discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the perceived exertion and fatigue of daily activities and the age-related decline of physical functions. Eighty-five male job applicants aged from 55 to 65 years old were asked to answer the questionnaire inquiring about perceptual effort and fatigue of daily activities, and then were examined on more than ten kinds of physical functions. The significance of the correlation coefficients between factors extracted from 35 subjective variables and those from 38 objective variables were tested. Main findings were as follows: (a) The perceived exertion of daily activities using lower limbs seems to be influenced by the decline of muscle strength. (b) The perceptual effort of daily activities using upper limbs seems to be connected with the obesity rate and also with the decline of hearing. (c) The subjective fatigue seems to be related with the level of blood pressure and also with the decline of hearing.
A structural model of helping behavior was built, which involved seven independent variables; i.e., emotional-warmth, emotional-susceptibility, locus of control, general awareness of helping norm, awareness of “on” norm, awareness of non-involvement norm, and age. Four hundred and one university students responded to personality tests covering these variables and a questionnaire on helping experiences in 26 situations. Hayasi's quantification model III (HAYASI 3) for the helping experiences yielded three axes-general tendency to help, tendency to give money for charity, and spontaneous helping tendency-and suggested that “cost of helping” is an important factor of the general tendency to help. Analyses of HAYASI 3's sample scores showed that females and religious believers were more kind and generous than males and nonbelievers. A path analysis indicated that norm awarenesses and age were direct determinants of helping tendencies, while emotional empathies were indirect determinants mediated by the norm awarenesses.
It was tested whether “subjective” contours have functional effects similar to real contours on stroboscopic motion. The probability of seeing motion between a pair of subjective contour stimuli was compared with that between a pair of the corresponding real contour stimuli. The results were as follows: (1) For both identical shapes and disparate shapes, subjective contours had functional effects similar to real contours, but this equivalence was not enhanced with increasing duration. (2) Three types of stroboscopic motion were observed when between two disparate shapes was used as stimuli (two-dimensional rotation of rigid shapes, rotation in depth and plastic deformation), depending on geometrical transformations between stimulus pairs rather than on ISI and duration.
The relation between the activation level of hemisphere and the laterality of visual detection was investigated under nonverbal loading conditions. In Exp. I, 10 (6 male and 4 female) right handed college students made “same-different” judgements for pairs of random forms (4th, 8th, and 12th polygons) serially presented. In Exp. II, another 10 (5 male and 5 female) subjects responded to similar stimuli with different association values. The main findings were as follows: (a) A test stimulus (8th polygon) was recognized more accurately in the left visual field, but this was due to the poor performance in the right visual field, (b) the factor of association value did not influence the visual field superiority, and (c) the task difficulty may be sole factor responsive to the visual field superiority. These results suggested that the visual laterality effects occured only when the level of hemispheric loading was optimal.
The purpose of the present study was to examine age and sex differences in “implicit personality theories (IPT).” Forty-four undergraduates and 77 junior high school students served as subjects in personality perception as obtained by the Repertory Grid method. Responses were analyzed by means of Carroll and Chang's INDSCAL model. The results were: (a) The dimensional structure of IPT for the older subjects were more complicated than that for the younger ones; and (b) for the younger subjects, males perceived role persons in less differentiated manners than did females.
The purpose of this study was to examine how an individual changes his opinion with exposure or no exposure to others' average responses and with expectation or no expectation of having his opinion made public. Subjects were 88 undergraduate students. The materials used were CDI (Choice Dilemma Items). In risky items a shift toward risk occurred under no expectation of opinion publication and exposure to others' average responses. In cautious items a shift toward caution did not take place. Group polarization was found in risky items but not in cautious items. The results were discussed in terms of the social comparison processes.