The context effect and “specificity” of paired-associate encoding were investigated from the viewpoint of a modified generation-recognition model. Target words were presented for study in the presence of list cues, and subsequently tested with three types of extralist cues: (a) target-related, (b) mediate (related both target and list cue), and (c) list-cue-related. The most effective cue was the mediate (Exp. I-2), though it was the target-related in single presentation of target (Exp. I-1). About the effect of the cues related to list cues the possibility of two-stage retrieval was examined (Exp. II). Moreover, the relation between the level of processing and the semantic analysis was discussed concerning the effects of number of presentations and list length.
Two experiments were conducted with Japanese subjects to investigate whether in reading Japanese phonological recoding is an obligatory stage or the direct access to semantic representation is the general rule. The first experiment used a word reading-out task and the second, a sentence judgement task. In the first experiment Kana (Japanese characters) were read out faster than Kanji (Chinese characters), but in the second experiment with the silent reading condition Kanji were judged faster than Kana. These results suggest that Kana is superior to Kanji in access to the phonemic codes, but this does not imply that the meaning is comprehended more rapidly in Kana. In contrast, Kanji takes longer for reading out (decoding) than Kana, but makes rapid access to semantic codes possible. This seems to indicate that in the silent reading of Kanji the direct proccessing from visual (graphemic) codes to meaning (semantic codes) is possible, whereas in Kana the relation of graphemic codes to meaning is mediated by the phonemic system.
The present study was designed to examine the effects of self-reinforcement (SR) and self-evaluation (SE) on concept learning. In learning session, fifth-graders were shown 16 stimuli cards one by one with information if each card was relevant or irrelevant. Then the subjects were asked to identify the correct concept values. This procedure was repeated three times (trials). After each trial, SE group evaluated their answers themselves on a 5-point scale. SR group, in addition to SE, reinforced themselves if they thought their answers were correct. N group were given no instructions. After learning session, all subjects performed a post test. In learning session, SR and SE groups earned relatively high scores on later trials, indicating facilitation of learning in these groups. For the post test, SR and SE groups scored high points and, indeed, many subjects succeeded in learning. These results suggested that SR and SE had positive effects on learning. However, the additional effect of SR was not significant.
The function of visual imagery and the effect of input modality in spatial transformation task was examined in 24 blind and 18 sighted students. Early blind, late blind and blind-folded sighted persons were presented with the information about four objects which were placed randomly on a board. They identified those objects haptically (with touch and movement) or verbally. After a practice session with one object, the subjects were told to locate the position of the other three objects (simple reconstruction trials) and then, to imagine that he/she had moved to a position behind the other object and to make similar evaluation of the imagined position (perspective transformation trials). These groups were well matched in simple reconstruction. But on perspective transformation trials, a highly significant interaction between sight status and input modality was found. Input modality affected the blinds only. Their error rate was significantly higher than the sighted persons in verbal input condition. In haptically input condition, the blind did not differ from the sighted. These results suggest visual imagery plays a major role when there are few or no perceptual cues in which to evaluate a situation.
The relationship between two types of role-taking ability and social experiences in children was investigated in terms of two types of role-taking opportunities. Subjects were interviewed for two role-taking tasks (Flavell, Selman) and were given questionnaires on strategies which mothers use in controlling their children when they deviate and on contact with peers. The results were as follows: (a) In accordance with the hypothesis, the control strategy for the children to feel for others was positively correlated with the Selman-task, and the degree of contact with peers with the Flavell-task for kindergartners; (b) for second graders the relationships among the above variables were partially verified; and (c) for fourth graders the influence of social experiences on the role-taking abilities was not verified.
In order to investigate the influence of socializing agents upon cognitive development in different cultural contexts, 140 mother-child pairs sampled from an urban population in Japan and a suburban population in California have been studied for four years since 1972. The relationships between maternal factors, such as mother's attitudes and opinions concerning the child-rearing practices, teaching styles, communication styles, mother-child interaction patterns, and child's cognitive performances such as the school-related skills, and IQ were examined for boys and girls separately, and sex differences were analysed concerning the cognitive socialization processes in two countries. Main results are as follows: Sex differences were recognized in cognitive socialization processes in Japan and the U.S. However, the pictures of sex-typing were different in the two countries. In Japan, the characteristics of cognitive socialization in boys were found more clearly than in girls, and much more maternal factors were recognized to be positively related to child's cognitive performances in the boys' group. On the other hand, in the U.S., the characteristics of cognitive socialization were found clearly in both sexes, but they were contrasted and clearly differentiated between the two sexes.
To investigate interproblem transition of selection strategies in concept learning, experiments were conducted under the following three conditions: In Cond. S, the subject was given feedback in accordance with the predetermined correct concept. In Cond. M, the correct concept was not fixed and the subject received feedback that minimizes the number of eliminated hypotheses. In Cond. E, feedback was varied at random or equiprobably. Twenty-eight graduates and undergraduates solved eight problems under one of the above conditions. An analysis by hierarchical clustering suggested a classification of trials into four strategy groups: fixed focusing, floating focusing, gambling and scanning. As predicted, there were no significant interproblem changes in frequencies of four strategies in Cond. S. In Cond. M, the frequency of fixed focusing increased markedly, while those of floating focusing and gambling decreased. In Cond. E, the frequency of scanning did not significantly increase, contrary to expectation. Feedback manipulation in Cond. M was effective to make the subject adopt fixed focusing, but that in Cond. E had only a weak effect on choice of strategies.
This experiment investigated the learning of Kana and Kanji by four-year-old children under the following conditions: C1: Kana+syllable, e.g., _??_+“ku”; C2: Kana+syllable+picture representing a word beginning with the preceding syllable, e.g., _??_+“ku”+picture of kuma (bear); C3: Kana+syllable+word which begins with the preceding syllable, e.g., _??_+“ku”+“kuma”; C4: Kana+syllable+word+picture; C5: Kanji+word, e.g., _??_+“inu” (dog); and C6: Kanji+word+picture, e.g., _??_+“inu”+picture of inu. The Kanji conditions (C5 and C6) were the easiest. Association with meaningful words or pictures did not significantly improve Kana learning.
The relation of the durations of on-time (numeral presentation period) and off-time (interval between presentations) to the accuracy of quantitative readings in digital presentation was investigated. A micro-computer (Pang-Facom L-kit 16) was used for presenting numerals. Four kinds of numerals were presented successively and three subjects reported their readings after presentation was over. By changing on-time and off-time systematically, threshold duration for correct readings of four numerals was obtained. It was found that shorter off-time resulted misreadings even if the total duration of on-time and off-time was equal, and that the threshold decreased when off-time was longer. These facts suggest that off-time may play an imortant role in the visual information processing.