The purpose of this paper is to present a metrical approach to the cognitive structure of interpersonal relationships, using the eij-type and eijk-type quantification methods by C. Hayashi, and the two methods to estimate the strength of interpersonal relations, one being the multidimensional paired comparison type (C. Hayashi), and another, the semantic differential type (K. Maruyama). The experimental objects were 10 famous statesmen, whose interpersonal relations in pairs and trios were judged by the subjects. The results indicated the effectiveness of the metrical approach in dealing with some problems of two- and three- person relationships.
Three JARAT scoring groups and two academic performance (based upon the results of three years of high school and the first year of college) groups were selected from 419 male college freshmen (each group, N=8). HG, MG and LG (high, medium and low JARAT scoring groups) and two academic groups (superior and inferior groups) were examined by group methods of Rorschach Test and TAT. H, M and scores of M activity significantly discriminated HG from MG and LG. Content analysis of the stories composed on successive presentations of three and five TAT plates showed that HG had more fantastic, antisocial and dependent tendency in the world of imagination than all other groups. Therefore, it was concluded that JARAT based upon the complex systems of Japanese language had some validity as a creativity test for adults.
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of face-to-face playing on choice behavior in prisoner's dilemma games. Subjects were female undergraduates. Experiment I showed that the subjects under the face-to-face condition played less competitively than those under the non-face-to-face condition in a game with the matrix composed of plus scores and minus scores. Experiment II showed that the subjects under the face-to-face condition played more competitively than those under the non-face-to-face condition in a game with the matrix composed of only plus scores. It was suggested that face-to-face playing facilitated the behavior avoiding the subject's and her partner's minus scores in the first game and the behavior outscoring the partner in the second game.
The achievement motivation factor was positively correlated with the affiliation motivation factor and three affiliative value factors, i.e., cooperative value, love value and moral value. In Japan, achievement motivation is affiliative. When the values were partialled out of the motivations, a lower positive factor correlation between achievement and affiliation motivations resulted. In a canonical correlation analysis, the affiliative achievement motivation was extracted as the first dimension and the non-affiliative achievement motivation as the third. The findings suggest that the achievement motivation consists of two dimensions. Moreover, affiliative achievement motivation is primary in Japan and non-affiliative achievement motivation in U.S.A.
The purpose of this investigation was to test a hypothesis that the speed is a primary index representing the mental tempo. Each subject was asked to do finger tapping in a comfortable way, and both tapping speed and tapping pressure were measured with Tapping-Pressure-Apparatus. A positive high correlation (r=.589) was found between these indices. It would seem that the above hypothesis was supported, and that the constancy of the mental tempo found in the past experiments may be explained by this finding.
Some skeletal startle reflexes are facilitated or inhibited when a weak neutral stimulus (S1) precedes a startle-eliciting stimulus (S2). These effects are called the “lead-stimulation effects”, and the present research is concerned with the facilitation effect of them in the long-ISI condition. The present findings were as follows: the facilitation of the startle eyeblink reflex could not be explained by any changes in HR, spontaneous eyeblinks, and chin EMG activity; and the HR changes were independent of the changes in spontaneous eyeblinks and chin EMG activity. These findings were evaluated from the standpoints of Graham's rebound hypothesis, the Laceys' cardiac afferent feedback hypothesis, and the notion of Obrist and his associates against Lacey.
Subjects were presented with a set of geometric figures that were formed by transforming in various degrees a prototype figure, and then were tested for recognition on a set consisting of the old examples, the prototype, and the new variations. Presentation and test were repeated in two sessions. Mean recognition ratings for old examples were superior to those for new examples. This difference between old and new examples increased with sessions. Only for new examples, recognition ratings were related to the transformational distance from the prototype. The results were interpreted as follows: In the early stages of learning, the subjects classified the test patterns according to the information about individual examples as well as the transformational distance from the prototype, but in the latter stage they used more intensely the information about specific examples.
The Kwansei Gakuin Sleepiness Scale (KSS) is a self-rating scale which is developed after the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) and using Thurstone's method of equal-appearing intervals. The present study investigated whether the KSS correlates with vigilance task performance, fatigue test and oral temperature, and whether circadian variation of the KSS ratings is demonstrated during 40 hours sleep deprivation. Six student subjects employed in this study were given performance test, self-ratings and temperature measurement at every 3 hour for 3 days. On Day-2, sleep deprivation was carried out to all subjects. The results showed that mean KSS ratings highly correlated with correct detection rates on the vigilance task, fatigue test and oral temperature, and that the change of KSS ratings demonstrated not only the effect of sleep deprivation but also the circadian variation in sleepiness.