Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of hippocampal lesions upon various behaviors of rats in both shock and shock-free situations. The main emphasis, however, was placed on the study of the effects of the lesion upon avoidance learning to be active and inactive. In Experiment I, partially hippocampectomized rats, as compared with the control rats, showed better performance in the avoidance task to be active, but groups did not differ in the avoidance task to be inactive. Having assumed that the latter result was due to the insensitivity of the stabilimeter device used to detect rat's movements, they were detected visually by an observer under a blind condition in Experiment II. Hippocampectomized rats were shown to be poorer than control rats in learning to avoid by being immobile. The results were discussed with reference to Issacson (1974) and Blanchard, Blanchard, Lee, and Fukunaga (1977). The results obtained in shock free situations did not differ significantly among groups. But there was some evidence showing the mean durations of freezing and immobility to be less per episode in hippocampectomized than control rats.
The purpose of this study was to identify the dimensions relevant to perception of 13 Japanese consonant phonemes. Nine subjects read aloud a list of pairs of monosyllables (C+/a/) and judged the auditory similarity of consonants to each other. Similarity responses were analyzed by INDSCAL and Hayashi's Quantification Theory I. Four distinctive features in Chomsky-Halle feature system were found to be important through the latter analysis. Three-dimensional configuration derived from the former one was interpreted on the basis of these articulatory features. Dimension 1 was interpreted as the effects upon the perception produced by both the feature [strident] and [coronal], Dimension 2 by [[-sonorant]∧[+voiced]], and Dimension 3 by both [voiced] and [sonorant]. This interpretation proved to be highly valid.
This study examined the understanding of marked relational terms and the negative term (“not”) in the “Considering Two Things Task” (with the series of height) and in the “Considering Two Dimensions Task” (with the matrix of the series of height and thickness). Subjects were 7-, 8-, and 9-year-olds. In the Considering Two Things Task, when a single marked term or negative term was used, the task was not difficult. But when marked terms and/or negative terms were combined, the task became difficult. Decentration hypothesis was supported rather than reversability hypothesis. In Considering the Two Dimensions Task, the difficulty increased as the number of marked terms or the negative terms increased. Considering two dimensions of a thing (if not considering all elements) was easier than considering a single dimension of two things. Considering two things or two dimensions in the series task was more difficult than in the classification task. Markedness, negation, considering two dimensions and considering two things were supposed to need perceptual decentration.
Maintenance rehearsal was studied in an incidental learning paradigm where the subjects were required to find out a target item in a 6×6 letter matrix. In Experiment I, performances on a free recall test and a recognition test of the searched items which followed item search tasks were not related to item search time. This result suggested that maintenance rehearsal did not have a differential effect on recall and recognition, that is, it did not influence the longterm memory. On the other hand, Experiment II showed that the percentage of correct recall increased with the length of maintenance rehearsal when the subjects attended closely to the item during the item search task, which suggested that maintenance rehearsal acted as a kind of elaborative rehearsal. These results implied that the distinction between maintenance and elaborative rehearsals should perhaps be replaced by a maintence-elaborative continuum.
Measurements of sound localization in the lateral dimension were taken with or without head movements when the observer wore the electronic pseudophone in an anechoic chamber. Tones of various frequencies as stimuli were presented from the loudspeakers located on the horizontal plane of the observer's head and on the circle, 2m in diameter, around the observer, who pointed with his hand the position from which he thought the sound originated. The results of three subjects showed that: when the inter-aural axis of the pseudophone was 180° reversed, real and apparent locations of the sound were symmetrical with respect to the mediane of the observer's head under the head-fixed condition, but were symmetrical with respect to the position of the observer's head as a center under the head-free condition. The implication of the results obtained was discussed.
The present study investigated how the powerholder influences the less powerful and how he perceives both himself and the less powerful. Each subject supervised four (fictitious) workers as the manager of a simulated company. The subject was given positive or negative feedback on his production control which represented either his success or failure in goal-achievement. The subject exercised most power on both the least and the most productive workers. The goal-achievement factor influenced evaluation of subject's own contribution to the company and willingness to talk with the workers. The amount of power-exercise influenced evaluation of his contribution to the company, willingness to rehire the workers and rating of the workers' motivation to do well.
The present study applied spectral analysis of finger photoelectric plethysmogram (PTG) to describe the emotional factor involved in baseline deflection of PTG. Using 23 normal male students as subjects, PTG was measured under rest, verbal instruction, and electric shock conditions. PTG spectral analysis via fast Fourier transform was carried out on the consecutive 10×9ms×1024 points×4 (398.64s) samples in each condition with frequency resolution at 0.0109Hz. In the analysis of power spectra, two distinct power peaks were observed in all conditions; below 0.3Hz and around 1.0Hz. It was confirmed that the former was baseline deflection and the latter was heart beat component. There were no differences in each peak frequency among conditions. Whereas peak power below 0.3Hz tended to increase all through verbal instruction and electric shock conditions as compared to rest one. These results were discussed in relation to anxiety involved in emotion.
A tactile recognition test was conducted to examine the laterality differences in the adult left and right handers. In one condition (Non-rotation condition), tactually presented nonsense figures were matched to the visually presented recognition display. In another condition (Rotation condition), tactual stimuli were presented in various direction so that subjects matched the stimuli to the visual display by means of mental rotation. The results obtained from the right handers showed that there was no hand difference in the Non-rotation condition while significant left hand superiority was revealed in the Rotation condition. Left handers did not show any hand difference in both conditions. These results suggest that hemisphere difference in tactile recognition of the left handers is not identical to that of the right handers.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate models of attentional switching mechanism between two ears through reaction time (RT). In two experiments, eight or 12 subjects were required to judge whether frequencies of two tone pips presented successively were the same or different. RTs obtained when two tones were presented to the same ear (Condition NS) were compared with those obtained when two tones were to the different ear (Condition S). In Exp. I, two tones (1000Hz or 1030Hz) were presented with 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600ms ISI. Exp. II was designed to clarify the effect of the task difficulty upon differences in RTs between Conditions NS and S, with 100, 200, and 400ms ISIs. The task difficulty was defined by the degree of frequency differences in two tones. Throughout Exp. I and II, the RTs of Condition S were longer than those of Condition NS at short ISIs but not at long ISIs. These RT differences were independent of the task difficulty. These results suggested the existence of the attentional switching mechanism and supported the structural models rather than capacity models of attention.