In place of actual psychophysical measurments, a checklist with 58 items was compiled, in order to ask the subject's preferences among environmental stimuli in vision, audition, tactile sense and olfaction, and to estimate the extent of their subjective sensitiveness to intence or weak sensory stimuli. The 229 male undergraduate students subjects participated in this research. Results: By VARIMAX rotation, the following six factors were obtained, 1st General sensitivity, 2nd Orientation to the weak stimuli, 3rd Orientation to the intense and prolonged stimuli, 4th Sensory-motor reactivity to the intermittent or rhythmical stimuli, 5th Activation level, and 6th Temporal sensitivity. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th factors agreed well with the theoretically predicted properties, while the 5th was not necessarily similar to the properties on the hypothesis. The 2nd, and 3rd factors were the factors related to “the culture bounded behavior”, on the other hand, the 1st and 6th ones related to “the culture-free behavior”. The 5th, Activation level, stand in need of further research.
The relations between psychophysical and oculo-motor responses to retinal disparity were examined in two experiments. Experiment I examined the subject's discriminability of the depth produced by 2° crossed, 2° uncrossed, and zero disparities with the durations of 100 and 1000ms. As a result, six stereonormal, one crossed stereoanomalous, and one stereoblind observers were identified. In Experiment II, eye movement responses of three subjects with the different types of stereoscopic vision to the disparity pulses were monitored by the photo-electric method. The results of Experiment II indicated that the normal observer showed normal vergence, the crossed stereoanomalous observer showed anomalous convergence, and the stereoblind observer did not show any vergences but saccadic movements. Several theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
An experiment with forty college students as subjects was carried out to examine the effects of semantically encoded attributes on a recognition task. Two encoding conditions were compared: DC condition, where subjects were presented each target with its synonym first and its antonym second, or the other way around; and SC condition, where the target was presented with either its synonym or antonym twice. Subjects in the DC condition showed higher recognition scores on the hit rate and d' measures than those in SC condition. The effects of instructional sets were also examined in the same experiment. Central learning condition yielded better performance than incidental learning condition in the CRS and d' measures. These results were discussed in terms of discriminability of the targets.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of increasing of recall total in the repeated free emission task. Thirty-one or 53 subjects recalled flower names twice for 12 or 10 minutes. All the recalled names were classified into two classes according to the subjects' introspective reports after the recall: One class had the items which were recalled with some cues (IWC), and the other contained the items which were recalled without such cues (IWOC). Mean number of IWC increased with trials, while that of IWOC was constant. Fifteen percent of all names that were emitted in trial 1 disappeared in trial 2. This is contrary to the reinforcement theory. The mechanism of increase in recall total was inferred from the cue based encoding, storage and retrieval strategy of subjects. The 40 episodic retrieval cues that were introduced at the beginning or in the middle of recall time made no contribution to the increment of recall total.
This study examined by two questionnaires images about the female body and sex role in 100 male and 100 female university students. The first questionnaire was for sex differences in response words to adjectives in word association (Study I), and the second was for sex differences and age differences in “like” and “dislike” responses to stimulus words that were presented after the word association (Study II). Main results were as follows: In Study I, the rate of responses to association words was lower and commonplace and similar responses were less frequent in males than in females. In contrast with males evaluation to manhood, females evaluated their physiological functions and their sex role negatively. Though evaluation to “woman” was lower in females, evaluation to “mother” was high and positive both in males and females. In Study II, four factors were found and named as Family (Factor I), Affiliation (Factor II), Motherhood (Factor III), and Love-Marriage (Factor IV). Sex differences were found in Factor III, and age differences in Factors I and IV.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between power status and power resources in classroom. Two kinds of tests were given to 549 subjects chosen from 15 classes of four elementary schools. One was the near-sociometric test, the aim of which was to measure power status in the classroom. The other was to examine power resources possessed by pupils who were selected on the sociometric test. The main results were: a) Subjects attributed “affiliation” and “cheerfulness” to the power holders in the classroom and b) subjects attributed “leadership, ” “superiority” and “achievement” to chilidren of higher power status in addition to “affiliation” and “cheerfulness.”
Using vibrotactile stimuli, equal-sensation contours and a threshold curve were determined on the glabrous skin of the human hand. Equal-sensation contours were measured between 1Hz and 16Hz. When plotted on log-log coordinates, they monotonically decreased as a function of frequency and were downward by concaved. The threshold curve was measured between 1Hz and 50Hz. Its values decreased linearly from 1Hz to 16Hz, became constant at 16-35Hz, and decreased again at 35-50Hz. Therefore, at the stimulus range of 1-16Hz, equal-sensation contours were downward concave and the threshold curve was more or less linear. This discrepancy seems to be caused by the differences in mechanoreceptor types which take part in subjective responses: suprathreshold sensation depends on several types of mechanoreceptors, whereas vibrotactile thresholds depend mainly on RA receptors (Meissner corpuscles).
The likelihood of stroboscopic motion between different contour combinations was obtained under temporal conditions (duration, ISIs). Three kinds of contour figures were prepared; the real, the subjective and the control. Two stimulus figures for such combinations were chosen from these three; one as the first stimulus and the other as the second. The result was that the likelihood of seeing motion was reduced, when the contour figure of more form information was used as the first stimulus and that of less form information as the second than when they were in the reverse order. This was considered as the effect of order of stimulus presentation.
The process of integrating information about individuals was investigated, using the experimental paradigm which Anderson and Hastie (1974) and Anderson (1977) developed in purpose of verifying the ‘one individual-one node hypothesis’ in the ACT model. In this experiment, occupation-dependent events, which cannot be comprehended without referring to the occupation name (the definite description) of the individual, were introduced into this paradigm as one of four events about one individual. ACT representations derived from verification time were almost accordant with Anderson's. But there were no inference effects when events were learned through definite description and the identification of the individual was given before the learning phase of events, and there were some trends that occupation-dependent events were copied faster than other events in the condition of “identification-after.” These differences were examined in termes of the activating-status of nodes.