The simple reaction times (RTs) in mentally retarded children and nonretarded children matched on mental age (MA) were analyzed, and the relationship between mental ability and RT performances was discussed. RTs in both groups were obtained under three temporal conditions. In Experiment I, it was found that: (a) The shorter intertrial interval (ITI), the shorter RTs in both groups and (b) in the retarded group, RTs of MA 5 and MA 6-8 subjects were significantly different, presumably because of motor and/or sensory disabilities in the younger subjects, irrelevant to mental ability. In Experiment II, different response characteristics were found for both groups under the complex temporal condition. Retarded subjects showed remarkably slow RT only on those trials in which a long ITI was followed by a short ITI. Nonretarded subjects had remarkable variation in RT over all trials. It was inferred that different psycho-behavioral characteristics of the subjects of both groups were reflected in the different response tendencies observed.
The subjects listened to a list of 21 words read aloud and memorized eight words among them indicated by the cue. In VC (voice-cue) condition, where the change of voice between male and female cued the difference between the to-be-memorized and not-to-be-memorized items, the percentage of correct recall was higher and the number of intrusion-errors was fewer than in NYC (non-voice-cue) condition, where the cue was the sound of chime given immediately before the to-be-memorized item. The results suggest that the physical characteristics of cue facilitate the selective memorization, but do not necessarily support the early-selection theory of attention. Next, in order to confirm Watanabe's (1976) assertion that the transformation of to-be-memorized items into long-term memory and the exclusion of not-to-be-memorized items take place in parallel, the subjects were required to rehearse aloud every word as it was presented. However, it was found that the method of voiced rehearsal was inadequate to test the assertion.
Description styles of mothers and preschool teachers in Japan and the U.S. are compared in a referential communication task situation, and their relationship to children's communication task performance is investigated. Mothers and preschool teachers are asked to describe one of a set of four pictures to four-year-old children. Children are asked to choose the target picture described. The type of description is analyzed in terms of two criteria: a literal vs. an imaginative description and a novel vs. a repetitive description. The results show that the differences in description styles are larger between mothers and teachers in Japan than in the U.S. The relationship between their description styles and children's communication task performance is similar in both countries.
Two experiments were conducted to specify individual differences in analogical reasoning and to examine whether subjects were consistent or not in their analogical reasoning strategies across cue conditions. Subjects were thirty-two undergraduate and graduate students in each experiment. To evaluate subjects' strategies twelve process models were constructed and the preferred model of each subject for each reasoning problem was determined by multiple regression analysis. Twelve models were different from each other in the manner of encoding, the presence or absence of mapping, and the manner of attribute comparison. Subjects' performance was measured in terms of latencies to solve analogies correctly. In Experiment I, subjects were asked to solve analogies of geometric figure and schematic-picture. In Experiment II, subjects were asked to solve analogies schematic-picture under 0-cue and 2-cue conditions. Almost all subjects used different strategies to solve different analogies. Individual and stimulus differences were large in the manner of encoding and little in the manner of attribute comparison. Many subjects were not consistent in their analogical reasoning strategies across cue conditions.
A new method is applied to measure the noisiness of the level-fluctuating noises exposed for a long time. The part of the stimulus to be rated is specified by light emitting diode (LED) and a subject rates the noisiness by pressing one of the category buttons. By the method, every component part of the long fluctuating noise is rated. Experimental results show that (1) the method is very effective to measure our changing impressions for a fluctuating stimulus with a long duration, (2) the part of stimulus with two to three seconds duration seems to be best for psychological judgment, (3) the method does not show the context effect which is usually found in the conventional category judgment, and (4) the noisiness value judged from the whole stimulus is much higher than the average noisiness value judged from the fractionated stimulus.
In order to elucidate the reliability of classification, composite-score method (mentioned in Ikeda, 1969), was analyzed in terms of amount of information. First, entropy and amount of information, which is neccessary for classification of examinees into two categories of pass and fail under a given “efficiency”, is calculated. Here, “efficiency” is defined as the conditional probability of classification in terms of true score according to any rule. Next, amount of information obtained from the classification in terms of composite-score, was calculated and compared with the first. Finally, the reliability of classification in terms of composite-score is discussed with respect to those points.
In the present experiment an attempt was made to reduce interference due to stimulus semantic similarity in paired associate learning. Eighteen adjectives were used as the stimuli. One half of the stimuli in the list were semantically highly similar with each other (HS), and the other half were of low similarity (LS). Either a differentiating cue noun, that would facilitate semantically selective encoding, or an unrelated noun was presented with each adjective. Facilitation was found only when the differentiating cue nouns were presented with the adjectives, while the unrelated nouns disturbed learning. These results were interpreted as an evidence that interference due to stimulus semantic similarity is caused by difficulty in differentiated selective encoding of semantic components.
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of verbal information processing upon CNV, using a lexical decision task. Subjects performed a choice reaction time (RT) task under possible combinations of sense and nonsense syllables serving as warning (S1) and imperative (S2) stimuli. The results showed that CNV developed exclusively when the expectant information for motor response was given at S1. It was also found that CNV resolution time as well as RT was shorter in the near meaning condition than in the far meaning condition. These findings were discussed in relation to verbal information processing.
This study was conducted to examine the change of interpersonal attitudes of the seeing and the blind through the cooperative task. Subjects were 14 pairs of the seeing and the blind. The seeing were college students and high school students whose ages were from 17 to 24. The blind were students of blind schools whose ages were from 17 to 27. Each pair cooperated in a task of matching 40 category names (tree, color, etc.) written in usual letters with 40 object names (pine, red, etc.) written in braille. The main results were as follows: (1) Before the task the attitudes of the seeing to their “partners” and to “the blind” were more negative than those of the blind to their “partners” and to “the seeing”. (2) The attitudes of the seeing to their “partners” and to “the blind” were more positive after the task than before.
Multi-purpose experimental system was designed, which consisted of two microcomputers (control and response measuring devices) with I/O interfaces, a random-access projector (stimulus display device), floppy disk drive (response recording device), and the software programs for driving this equipment. A BASIC program was written (a) to control the input and output, (b) to randomize the stimuli, and (c) to store in floppy disk strage. This program included machine-language programs as a sub-routine for the operation of a microcomputer clock, which regulated output intervals and measured reaction time as well. They were specifically designed for increasing the accuracy of measurement. In fact, with this system, accuracy was improved by 1ms unit.