The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of sociometric status, self-other relationship, and other person's evaluation of the subject's performance upon feelings toward that other person who had evaluated it (S→O) and upon the evaluation of his own and that other person's performance. Seventy-four female undergraduates served as subjects in this experiment. The results were as follows: In the low sociometric status group, whether they chose each other or not in a sociometric test, it was found that when other person's evaluation of subject's performance was positive, he enhanced S→O and the evaluation of his own and other's performance, but when it was negative, he lowered them. While in the high sociometric status group the above tendency in S→O and his evaluation of other's performance was found only when they did not choose each other. The influence of other's evaluation on the evaluation of his own performance was not verified.
The present study is concerned with the effects of familiar-size cue on the judgments of size and distance for the children of an elementary school. Thirty-two 1st-, 3rd-, and 6th-grade children served as subjects. The experiment consisted of repeating alternations of the two steps: A judgmental step in which the subject judged the size and distance of transparencies of familiar objects, and an informational step in which the subject was acquainted visually or haptically with the real sizes of a toy car and a toy dog from which the transparencies were made. The results revealed that: (1) The younger children tended to make judgments resulted from the normal sizes of the familar objects that they encounter in their daily life, while the older children based their judgments on the size information given by looking on or touching the real toys. (2) Visual size information was superior to haptic size information both in size and distance judgments. (3) Familiar-size cue may be effective in relative rather than absolute size and distance judgments.
Aiming to examine the function of projection as a part of human cognitive behavior, this study focused on studying how an emotional factor affects projective movements by analyzing the quality of the movements. Subjects: Sixty junior college women. Visual stimuli: Sixteen unambiguous figures. Emotional states: As indurced by comfortable, uncomfortable sounds, or neutral state. The subjects were randomly divided into three emotionally different groups. Then stimulus slides were projected in a random order on a screen. Each stimulus was evaluated in terms of the amount, speed, and direction of its projectively perceived movement. Results: 1. A highly positive correlation was found between the emotional state and the amount of projected movements. 2. With regard to the speed and direction of projected movements, significant differences were found among the three groups of subjects and among the stimuli. Conclusions: 1. When considering the effect of emotional states on projected movements, the quality (speed and direction) of the movements, in addition to their amount alone, should be taken into account. 2. Under emotionally uncomfortable conditions, the speed and direction are mutually complementary as a means of protection against anxiety.
Several pieces of information about 500 people engaged in sales occupations in nine companies were used to examine (1) the relation between the Diamond Sales Aptitude Test score and criteria, i.e., job performance rating and overall rating by their superiors, and (2) the effects of tenure in sales occupation on the test score. Results indicated that personality traits in this test appear to have a predictive value for success in sales occupations. Job performance rating was positively correlated with Motivation (p<.01), Self-Confidence (p<.01), Sociability (p<.01), Circumspectness (p<.05), and Social Adaptability (p<.01). The only subtest not significantly correlated with the performance rating was Emotional Control. Overall rating was significantly correlated with all of the subtexts: Motivation (p<.01), Self-Confidence (p<.01), Sociability (p<.01), Circumspectness (p<.01), Emotional Control (p<.05), and Social Adaptability (p<.01). Tenure seemed to have certain effect on the personality traits except for Sociability. Several possible explanations for these results were discussed.
An experiment was conducted with 52 children in whom the motive to achieve success is stronger than the motive to avoid failure (Ms>Maf) and with 65 children in whom the motive to avoid failure is stronger than the motive to achieve success (Maf>Ms), in order to examine the effects of extrinsic rewards on their intrinsic motivation in a risk-taking situation. Subjects were ramdomly assigned to either reward or no-reward conditions, and were given a ring-toss game with 16 difficulty levels. As predicted, the results showed that: (a) in the no-reward condition, subjects in whom Ms>Maf preferred to take intermediate risks, whereas subjects in whom Maf>Ms preferred to take much lower or much higher risks, and (b) in the reward condition, subjects in whom Ms>Maf and in whom Maf>Ms both preferred to take much lower risks. These findings suggest that the change in feeling of competence process may occur in the no-reward condition, and that the change in perceived locus of causality process may be initiated in the reward condition.
Two experiments were conducted with six and three subjects, respectively, to examine the “dynamic” wallpaper phenomenon in which the apparent location of a uniform repeating pattern shifted abruptly at a certain convergence distance when the pattern was viewed with the gradual change of convergence. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the critical convergence distances (shift points), at which the apparent location of the pattern shifted, differed between the two directions of the change of convergence, converging and diverging. It was greater in the diverging condition than in the converging condition. This fact shows a tendency to keep the same fusional state as far as possible when the convergence changes gradually. Experiment 2 showed that the difference of the critical convergence distance between the converging and diverging conditions is systematically related to the convergence level, that is, the difference increased as the convergence angle increased. The implications of the results of the two experiments were discussed in the context of the fusional hysteresis.
The filled-duration illusion (FDI) was studied by the method of reproduction for longer durations and by that of categorical judgement for shorter durations. The stimulus materials were simultaneously presented dots (LEDs), or successively presented (spatially different) dots, whose duration represented subintervals of a filled duration. Under the successively presented condition, the filled durations shorter than about 600ms were underestimated (the opposite FDI), whereas the longer filled durations were overestimated, as compared with empty durations. The present results suggest that the major determinant of FDI isn't always an encoding process of subintervals. Rather, it is reasonable to take a view that the determinant is the “personal tempo” as pointed out in the sensory-tonic field theory.
A new approach to concept attainment was proposed, in which continuous values on coordinates on a graphic display screen was used for the definition of concepts. It is contrasted with Brunner's or Hovland's experiments of concept attainment, in which the concept were defined by the dimensions on nominal or ordinal scales. In Experiment I, dimensions which prescribe the concept were constructed by scales of continuous values, the values of coordinates on a plane surface. Based on the results of Experiment I, a model of concept attainment strategy was presented by using a function. Regarding this function as a concept to be attained, another experiment of concept attainment, Experiment II, has been attempted. As a result, learning processes in these concept attainments were obtained. These experiments are throughly automated and controlled by computer (graphic display system).
The effects of change-over-delay (COD) in discrimination training using the signal-key procedure were investigated in the pigeon. In Experiment I, generalization gradients along the line-tilt dimension following the signal-key procedure with and without COD 2s were studied. Regardless of the application of COD, following results were obtained: (1) Relative generalization gradients were similar. (2) No behavioral contrast was observed on the operant-key. (3) Some responding to the signal-key occurred during the VI component of the multiple VI EXT schedule. The responses on the signal-key decreased slightly with COD 2s. These data suggest that the responses on the signal-key were maintained partly by response-reinforces contingency. In Experiment II, local contrast in the signal-key procedure was investigated. Response distribution within 30s period of stimulus presentation revealed that COD produced decreased number of responses to the signal-key after 1.5s of stimulus onset. These suggest that the stimulusreinforcer contingency is responsible primarily for the local contrast.
An experiment was designed to examine the relation between expression and meaning in text memory. The concreteness of two texts were manipulated keeping their expressional forms almost the same. For analyzing recall protocols, two kinds of scoring were adopted. One is verbatim scoring which is considered to reflect the memory for expression. The other is semantic scoring which is considered to reflect the memory for meaning. Two main results were obtained: (1) The semantic concreteness of texts facilitated the memory for meaning, but not the memory for expression. (2) The memory for expression showed serial position effects in both cases of abstract and concrete texts, while the memory for meaning did not. These results were interpreted as showing that the memory for expression is independent of that for meaning in text memory.
The Gestalt characteristics of 881 Kanji were rated on each of 10 SD-like scales by 554 subjects. High reliability was found for all rating scales. Principal component analysis of the mean rating values of the Kanji for each scale showed eight of the ten scales to be appropriate for the measurement. The appropriate scales were: complexity, compactness, elongation, openness, straightness, roundness, stability, and symmetry.