An attempt was made to examine whether or not the simultaneous Delboeuf illusion and the successive one were based on the same perceptual process. By the method of the fixed set, the subject's inner process (set) during the occurrence of the illusions was investigated in Experiment I. The results indicated that his set toward the Delboeuf illusion figure was not changed when only the inducing circle was presented first, but that his set was changed at the moment the inducing circle disappeared and the two circles of identical size were presented. Experiment II examined his perception when there was a time delay between the presentations of the inducing circle of the Delboeuf illusion figure and the other two circles. In that situation, the simultaneous Delboeuf illusion and the successive one should occur successively. The results of Experiment III suggested that the transitional change from the simultaneous Delboeuf illusion to the successive one, which had been observed in the previous study, was due to a change in the judgement of the subject who experienced these two different phenomena successively.
The present study aimed at examining the validity of the use of the psychological distance map (PDM) for assessing the interpersonal psychological distances, and also examined whether subject's interpersonal environment would be organized through a microgenetic developmental course during the critical transition, i.e. admissions to a university (NE). Assessments were made 18 times after admissions by (1) the PDM, (2) a rating scale for psychological distance, and (3) personal interviews. Results showed that psychological distances on the PDM correlated significantly with those of the rating scale, and that the specific spatial layout on the PDM related to those interpersonal relationships on the PDM. It was also found that, while the number of persons in the NE increased, the number of persons from the old environment (OE) decreased. NE entries came significantly close to the center of the PDM, but no significant change was observed among those in the OE. Both the numbers of connections among persons in the NE and of those between persons in the NE and the OE increased over trials. These results were discussed from a microgenetic developmental view point.
The parallel operation of images using mental rotation task was examined from the following two points of view: (1) Whether or not a pair of letter images could be mentally rotated in parallel (Exp. 1), and (2) Whether or not an image pattern composed of two letters could become an object of a single mental rotation (Exp. 2). Exp. 1 showed that two images were serially rotated in group S which was slower in rotation of two letter images, while they were rotated in parallel in group F which was faster (Fig. 4). This result was interpreted as a trade-off between the correctness and the speed of response. Exp. 2 showed that the velocity of mental rotation was the same for two-letters image as for one-letter image in both groups, S and F (Fig. 5). This result indicated that the image pattern of two-letters could be an object of a single rotation, and suggested that image processing would include an image register in which multiple images are stored in parallel.
It has been widely reported that the late positive component (P3) of Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP) was elicited by the onset of task-relevant stimulus. It also has been reported that when the stimuli differ only in duration, the offset of task-relevant tone evokes the AEP with P3. In this study, it was hypothesized that P3 can be evoked by a task-irrelevant tone as well as by a task-relevant one if subject starts processing every tone as the task-relevant one from its onset. The task-relevant tone was a medium-duration tone and prior to the task, the subject was trained to anticipate the cessation of the medium-duration tone (600ms) without actual offset. Results showed that when the duration was short (300ms), P3 was evoked by the offset of tone. However, when it was long (1200ms), P3 was elicited at the time of the offset of the task-relevant tone. These findings were interpreted to mean that the termination of time estimation activity for the task-relevant tone evoked P3 component.
This study examined the developmental sequence and the teaching method of the action of making development drawings (AMD). In Experiment I, 160 second, third, fourth, and sixth grade children were tested to draw the development drawings of four objects illustrated in oblique drawings. In Experiment II, based on the performance level of the development drawing tests for 33 third-grade children, six pairs of matched subjects who had not yet acquired AMD were selected. The training program of six steps consisted of the following four subordinate operations which were assumed to underlie AMD; abstraction of all surfaces of the given figure, decision of the base, decision of the cutting lines, and development of the surfaces. Main results were as follows: (1) The development of AMD was accelerated from fourth grade and was nearly complete in sixth grade. (2) The training program raised the level of AMD from low to high. (3) Generalization of each operation based on the oblique drawing was necessary for the formation of AMD.
High, Medium, and Low Creative Groups, N=10 each and selected on scores of JARAT (RAT Revised In Japanese) from 155 college students, were examined by three projective tests of human figure image, that is, Attitude Test For An Unexperienced Object, Partially Restricted Human Figure Drawing Test, and Symmetrical Test of Human Figure Image. Subjects in High Creative Group responded to an unexperienced object more self-expressively, emotionally, and empathically than the rest. They also drew human figure images more self-consciously and fantastically. It was pointed out that the highly creative subjects showed a stronger self-asserting tendency and took a more indifferent attitude to other people. It was concluded that the highly creative subjects were ego-centric, asocial, and solitary though it was suggested that they tended more intensely to “AMAERU” (to depend upon others' favor, in Japanese) to a few intimate people.
Forty male and 40 female subjects observed the actors' achievement behavior on videotape, and made attribution of the actors' success or failure. Half of the subjects (empathic observers) observed the actors' behavior and made attribution from the actors' point of view. The remaining half of the subjects (standard observers) observed the same behaviors and made attribution from their own point of view. The empathic observers attributed the actors' behavior significantly more to external factors (luck and task difficulty) than the standard observers. This attribution pattern was found to be independent of the actors' outcome, demonstrating that the Jones and Nisbett hypothesis (1972) on actor-observer discrepancy in attribution holds when the observers have different points of view. In addition, female subjects ascribed causes of the actors' behavior significantly more to external factors than male subjects, especially when the actor failed.
An examination of memory confinement vs. generalization decrement under unilateral cortical spreading depression was undertaken using a licking suppression to a tone previously paired with a shock. In Experiment I, rats that were trained and tested under normal cortical conditions showed an impairment of memory when KCl-induced depression was given to an unilateral hemisphere within 15min after the training. In Experiment II, where rats were trained under normal cortical conditions followed by unilateral depression and tested under unilateral cortical depression, the degree of impairment was more severe when the test was performed under depression shifted to the other hemisphere than under depression to the same hemisphere. The results taken together support the memory confinement theory.
Two experiments were carried out measuring DRT. Two stimuli, horizontal-vertical and oblique ones were used, and four subjects were required to discriminate them in two categories as quickly as possible. In Experiment 1, the stimulus was presented in peripheral retina, every subjects showed a marked oblique effect at the outset. This effect decreased with proceeding sessions. After six sessions (600 trials), the results of these subjects were compared with those of naive control subjects in direct vision, in Experiment 2. The Experimental Group showed only a little oblique effect as contrasted with the Control Group. Such practice effect and the transfer effect couldn't be attributed to the functional anisotropy of the orientation analyzers in the visual cortex, and consequently, a cognitive approach was suggested.
The present study investigated the developmental changes in dominance of memory attributes between second and sixth graders. Subjects studied a familiar word list followed by a recognition test; dominance was inferred from the types of false recognition error (semantic and acoustic) on the test. The results showed dominance of the semantic attribute for sixth graders, but no difference of dominance level between the semantic and the acoustic attribute for second graders. The evidence also indicated no effect of the stimulus mode on dominance of memory attributes for both graders.
In the present study, the relationship between startle elicitation and lead-stimulus inhibition was examined. The amplitude of the human startle eyeblink reflex increased linearly with increases in the intensity of reflex-eliciting noise (S2). A lead-stimulus (S1), a pip tone of 70dB, inhibited the reflex at both conditions with lead times of 100ms (Experiment 1) and 250ms (Experiment 2). The amplitude of the reflex was reduced by an equal amount regardless of the intensity of S2 in both experiments. The results show that the lead-stimulus inhibition is independent of the reflex elicitation.