The purpose of the present study is to examine the factors inducing boomerang type attitude change in persuasive communication, Subjects were forced to commit themselves to the position counter to their own by writing supportive arguments for an unacceptable issue. Then, a counter-attitudinal communication was presented to the subjects on the issue about which they had previously negative evaluations. Two experiments were conducted with the same procedure for two groups of subjects who were on the different pre-opinion. For the subjects whose opinions were not so discrepant with those of the communicator, some attitudinal changes to the advocated direction were produced. But for those subjects, who had held opinions far from the communicator's position and were forced to commit to the position counter to their own, boomerang type opinion changes against the presented communication occurred. Disagreements to the communication, however, didn't necessarily mean the counteropinion changes. The results of the impression ratings on the communicator suggest that the evaluation of communicator's ability by receiver correlate with the direction of attitude change.
The effects of fornix lesion on visual evoked responses (VERs) recorded from the occipital cortex (OCX) and the lateral geniculate body (LGB) were examined during wakefulness (W), slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) respectively, in freely moving rats (N=6). In intact animals, amplitudes of VERs changed with sleep-waking stages in a decreasing order of SWS, PS and W. After fornical lesion, mean amplitudes of VERs were significantly enhanced at OCX, but not at LGB. As to OCX, amplitudes of early components of VERs increased during all sleep-waking stages, and those of later components increased only during sleep. These results suggest that the fornix system exerts some modulatory (probably inhibitory) influence on OCX in close relations to sleep-waking stages in rats.
Geometric transformation theory which claims the correspondence between the stroboscopic motion and the geometric transformation of stimulus-figures in two- or three-dimensional rotation was examined from the viewpoint of stimulus configurational feature theory which stresses the role of parallel lines for three-dimensional stroboscopic rotation. It was found that the two theories were compatible to the extent that the “equality in length” of adjacent parallel elements powerfully contributes to the formation of an axis for three-dimensional rotation. This was true even in the case where there was no three-dimensional rotation in its geometry. The “inequality of length” of parallel lines lost the power to generate three-dimensional stroboscopic rotation but did not affect two-dimensional rotation at all. In all cases the angle of rotation in either two-dimensional or three-dimensional geometric rotation did not play any role as determinants of the types of stroboscopic rotation.
Three experiments were carried out to elucidate the effects of monetary rewards on visual vigilance performance. In all three experiments, a pointer, located in front of the subject, deflected at 2s intervals for 40min. The subjects, looking at the pointer, pressed one button to normal deflections (noise), while the other button to occasional larger deflections (signal). Receipts of monetary rewards were informed to subjects by the sounding of a buzzer, In Experiment I, hit-contingent rewards increased both hits and false alarms (Contingent group), but the same amount of non-contingent reward showed no effect on performances (Non-contingent group). In Experiments II and III, all hits were followed by knowledge of results. Under appropriate conditions (Experiment III), the contingent rewards specifically increased hits without affecting the false-alarm rates. The results were discussed with reference to various effects that contingent rewards would have upon human performances.
Two kinds of list-categorized list (C list) and noncategorized list (NC list) -were used to investigate the influences of rehearsal on Initial Free Recall (IFR), recall order, Final Free Recall (FFR), cued Final Free Recall (cued FFR), and the organization of memory. The experimental design was 2 (C list, and NC list)×2 (No-delay immediate recall, and Delay-rehearsal with 30 second rehearsal between presentation and recall)×15 (serial positions). The main results were as follows: (a) Delay-rehearsal groups showed significantly better recall than No-delay groups in IFR, FFR, and cued FFR when C list were presented, while the latter groups showed slightly better recall than the former groups when NC list were presented: (b) In FFR, C list groups showed significantly better recall than NC list groups only under Delay-rehearsal condition: (c) Delay-rehearsal groups showed higher categorical clustering (ARC) scores than No-delay groups in FFR. The results indicate that the longer the rehearsal time, the stronger the retrievability from LTM when the elabolative rehearsal strategy can be used.
A new cognitive test for hemispherecity, based on the knowledge of hemispheric functional differences, was developed. In the first experiment, fifty subjects were examined their preferences for either visual-spatial or visual-verbal processing to the stimuli to which both types of processing were available. In the second experiment, ERP (Event Related Potentials) were measured in the two conditions: One, subjects processed the stimuli used in the first experiment as the visual-nonverbal stimuli, the other, subject processed the same stimuli as the visual-verbal stimuli. ERP from the left and the right hemispheres differed between both conditions in the later components. In the third experiment, both groups of subjects who preferred visual-verbal processing and visual-nonverbal processing were asked to report the Hiragana words presented tachistoscopically to the left or the right visual field. The former group of subjects showed a significant right visual field advantage while the latter group of subjects showed no visual field difference. These results confirm that the newly developed test for hemispherecity has appropriate validity and reliability.
Characteristics of managers' reward allocation processes as managerial behavior were examined through two experiments. The subjects' task was to decide annual salary increase for subordinates with varied performance appraisals. Findings were as follows. First, subjects whose goal was to increase subordinates' performance and subjects whose goal was to promote subordinates' teamwork were inclined to choose a relative equity norm and a relative equality norm, respectively. If, as this finding suggests, managers' reward allocation process is understood as a means of acomplishing their goals, results of past studies might be interpreted integrately. Second, the tendency for subjects to relate the allocation norm to their own goals was pronounced when they made the allocation decision in group rather than individually. Finally, the more confident subjects felt in the allocation decision, the more they felt it easy to exercise their managerial influence over subordinates. Based on the present results and observation of actual organizations, a managerial process model, in which a manager's reward allocation behavior plays an important intermediate role, was proposed and discussed.
A hypothesis has been advanced which suggests that the magnitude of suppression in binocular rivalry along the horizontal meridian is stronger at the center of the rivalrous pattern than at its peripheral. It was tested whether this hypothesis can be extended to the vertical meridian. Accuracy in detecting a briefly flashed target superimposed upon the completely suppressed pattern during binocular rivalry was measured at each of two target positions combined with two fixation positions along the vertical meridian (Exp. I). As a control experiment, target-detection performance in monocular observation was examined (Exp. II), The results obtained from one of the two subjects supported this hypothesis, although the effect of position within the rivalrous pattern was less marked than that obtained along the horizontal meridian. The results obtained from the other subject suggested that there was little difference in suppression effect between the center and the upper end of the pattern. These results suggest that the variation in suppression effect within the pattern along the vertical meridian is smaller than that along the horizontal meridian.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between ratings of the emotional characters of musics and the emotions aroused by them. A total of 183 students in music major was asked to listen each of one minute excerpts from two orchestral musics twice, and to rate the emotional characters of them or the emotions aroused by them on 64 five point adjective scales each time. The results showed that it was hardly possible to discriminate between what characters those musics had and what emotions they aroused. That is, the rated characters did not differ significantly from the rated emotions either on the adjective scales or on the scores of four factors, which were identified by factor analyses and interpreted as “agreeable relaxation”, “gayness”, “depression” and “tension-potency” Factors.
Hayashi's Quantification, model II, is a multivariate discriminant analysis for qualitative data. This method was applied to the quantitative indices about confusability of recognition of hand-written Japanese Katakana-letters. The experimental results of reaction time and eye movements in the recognition task corresponded well with indices computed by this statistical procedure. (a) The labels, given by the subjects to the letters, were in line with the prediction by the discriminant, (b) the reaction time and the number of fixations were bigger for highly confusable letters, and (c) those features, which were important according to the discriminant, were fixated more frequently, Thus, Hayashi's quantification procedure is valid for psychological experiments.
Subjects were required to name random shapes with two levels of association value and six levels of complexity, and were given afterward recognition test of these shapes. Both naming and recognition were better for high associative shapes than for low associative ones, but there was not significant effect of complexity. Recognition of named shapes was superior to that of unnamed ones. Though high associative shapes were recognized well regardless of naming, they were better recognized when named. These results suggest that perception of a shape as a meaningful object facilitates the storage of information on its distinctive features, and association interacts with naming to affect recognition.